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Copyright N° 






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Ph.D., Professor of English in the Lewis Institute, Chicago. 

Author of " An Introduction to the Study of Litera- 

iure," "A First Manual of Composition," btc. 






All rights reserved 






Two Copies Received 

JUL. 1U 1902 

.Copyright entry 

Class ^xxc. No. 




Set up and electrotyped July, 1902. 




tmp9 6 027691 

Norfoootr ^ress 

J. S. Cushing & Co. — Berwick & Smith 

Norwood Mass. U.S.A. 



The study of English in the upper grades 
should and does include something of many 
subjects : handwriting, spelling, pronunciation, 
oral reading, elementary composition, litera- 
ture, grammar. The amount of time required 
in any year to produce definite results in all 
these subjects would be very great. The time 
now given in even the best schools is wholly 
inadequate, programmes being crowded and 
classes large. Most phases of the subject now 
have to be slighted, and some, like the training 
of the speaking voice, are practically ignored. 

But large classes are at present an unavoid- 
able circumstance of democracy. We must be 
grateful that nearly everybody's child gets to 
school, and must obtain the best results we can 
by correlation and a wise economy of minutes. 
Under such conditions, what phases of gram- 
mar should be assured attention? Certainly 
there must be some systematic view of ele- 
mentary grammar ; the subject is too difficult 
to be taught incidentally amid miscellaneous 


language lessons. But what should be empha- 
sized? and what should stand first in the order 
of presentation? 

Elementary correctness in oral usage should 
be the first result aimed at in teaching grammar 
to children. At all events, it is the result most 
difficult to produce. The teacher of a large 
class cannot easily diagnose the habitual faults 
of each individual, or easily cure those diag- 
nosed. She can patiently correct sporadic aintfs 
and wa'nfs, but the habits usually persist. It 
is sometimes said that school cannot counteract 
a bad linguistic environment ; but it is a mis- 
take for any teacher, however discouraged, to 
say that. School, with all its opportunities for 
fixing attention and insuring vivid impressions, 
can work miracles in a child's usage. But mir- 
acles are not wrought " incidentally " ; there 
must be organized and prolonged drill, of a sort 
which to-day is called old-fashioned. Nor need 
there be a fear that learning to say isn't will 
be less educative than distinguishing "object 
complements" from " objective complements." 

Next in importance to elementary oral cor- 
rectness we may place a working knowledge 
of what a sentence is. This knowledge is 
purely grammatical in its nature, but it under- 
lies all work in composition. It is attained 
by applying the theory of independent and 


dependent statements to the actual problems 
of punctuation. The theory is perfectly defi- 
nite, even arbitrarily so, and has nothing to do 
with rhetorical theories of unity. 

Believing that elementary oral correctness 
and an elementary sentence-sense should be 
the first objects of grammar study, the present 
writer has devoted Part First of his book to 
a few cardinal principles of conversational Eng- 
lish, and to the definition of the sentence. The 
exercises of this part are very numerous, but 
often each member of the class should be re- 
quired to recite the entire exercise — for example, 
17, 27, 28, 30, 31, 32, 34, 36, 38, 39, 43, 48, 50, 
52, 53, 55, 56, 57, 61. From time to time each 
student's usage should be tested. His written 
usage can be discovered from his handling of 
such tasks as that of section 300. His oral 
usage can be tested once a week by having 
him retell some story to the class, or recount 
some experience of his own. He should not be 
corrected during his speech, but his mistakes 
should be silently " set in a note-book, conned, 
and learned by heart," to be (most gently and 
kindly) cast into his teeth next day. A small 
note-book, with a page for each student, can 
silently be used throughout the hour without 
embarrassing the speakers. Conversation should 
be encouraged, and the faults similarly noted. 


In Part Second a more systematic treatment 
of English grammar is given, with further 
applications to usage. The elements of the 
sentence are treated before the inflections. 

The book is meant to be used for two years. 
If anything is omitted, it should be the " Anal- 
ysis Exercises" of Part Second. A student 
who omitted only these would know nothing 
of analysis or parsing, but would have received 
a good deal of blind practise in the correct use 
of the vernacular. 

In Part First there are but few definitions. 
The words defined in Part Second are in bold 
type. Sentences containing such words should 
usually be committed to memory. 

The writer holds with those who believe 
that a little technical grammar, sympatheti- 
cally taught, is within the normal powers and 
interests of grammar school students. Also 
he thinks it the only permanent cure for bad 
punctuation. A boy may learn to punctuate 
by instinct after his written work has been 
pointed for him over and over again ; but 
without some clear notion of principal and 
subordinate clauses he will never be sure of 

Yet it is only too easy to overdo the teaching 
of formal grammar. Subtleties of analysis are 
not for children. When we reflect that gram- 


matical terms are but figures of speech, we 
can only pity the lad who has to apply them 
as if they were divinely ordained. When we 
realize that the purpose of every predicate is to 
modify the hearer's notion of the subject ; that 
every word but one in a sentence is a modifier, 
a complement, an adjunct, a limiter, an in- 
creases a definer of the subject; that every 
word is a name as well as something else ; that 
in many sentences the only important thought 
lies in some subordinate element ; that per- 
sonal pronouns may mean more than persons' 
names, which are often but unimportant pro- 
pronouns, and that pronouns may stand for 
verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and sentences ; when 
we reflect that what we call the parts of 
speech are the result of at least three disparate 
methods of classification, and that a strict defi- 
nition of any is logically impossible, is it any 
wonder that technical grammar is strong meat 
for babes ? If the boy thinks about what 
he studies, he gets mixed up. If he does not 
think, he parses accurately from memory till a 
visitor arrives, and then covers himself and his 
teacher with confusion by calling a verb a 
noun. One recalls Sweet's story of the assem- 
blage of grammarians who could not agree 
whether cannon in cannon ball is an adjective 
or not. Finally, one thinks with grim humor of 


Browning's poetic license in declaring that his 
grammarian had " settled hotis business." Hotis 
business will never be settled while articulate- 
speaking men strive to fathom the miracle of 
speech — what Newman liked to call "the two- 
fold logos, the thought and the word." 

A kindly fortune has lately given the writer 
the benefit of many discussions of grammar 
with three friends : Director George N. Carman 
of the Lewis Institute, Professor W. A. Heidel 
of Iowa College, and Professor F. W. Shipley of 
Washington University. Fortune would have 
been still kinder had it permitted the writer to 
submit the proofs of his book to the same 


Preface . 



Book One 



1. Grammatical Usage Defined 

2. Correct Use of Singular and Plural Verbs 

3. Correct Forms of the Verb " To Be " . 

4. Correct Forms of the Verb " To Have " 

5. Correct Forms of Certain Verbs of Action 


6. Subject and Object Forms of Personal Pronouns 71 



Book Two 
the definition of the sentence 


1. General Meanings of the Word " Sentence " . 81 

2. Statements and Not-state men ts . . • .84 

3. Statements that may be written as Sentences . 93 

4. -Statements that may not be written as Sen- 

tences 116 

5. The Sentence as a Union of Subject and Predi- 

cate 129 

6. Compound Subjects, Predicates, and Sentences . 150 





Introduction 167 


1. Verbs 169 

2. Nouns 175 

3. Verbal Nouns 187 

4. Pronouns 193 

5. Adjectives 207 

6. Verbal Adjectives 216 

7. Adverbs 227 

8. Prepositions 238 

9. Conjunctions 250 

10. Summary of Sentence-Elements . . . 259 

11. Punctuation 266 

12. Forms of Words 284 




13. Forms of Nouns 

14. Forms of Pronouns . 

15. Forms of Adjectives and Adverbs 

16. Forms of Verbs .... 

17. Form-Combinations 

18. The Older Style 










1. One reason why men are superior to ani- 
mals is that they can express their thoughts 
to each other better than animals can. Being 
able to tell their thoughts, men are able to 
help one another. Men grow wise and strong 
by learning from one another. 

Both men and animals express themselves 
by cries and motions, but men use words also. 
Even the little child finds that crying and 
pointing will not convey all his wishes. He 
watches his elders, and observes that they 
have names for things. He soon learns certain 
names, and is presently giving such commands 
as " Potato ! to me, potato ! '" Words thus do 
for him what gestures could never do. 

2. Words are articulate sounds that other 
people understand, and they make up what 

B 1 


is called language. When, however, we use 
words, we think of them as parts of state- 
ments, or requests, or commands, rather than 
as parts of language. 

3. Language is spoken before it is ever 
written. The word language once meant that 
which is formed by the lingua, or tongue. By 
the time the word reached our forefathers in 
their island of England it had come to mean 
both oral and written speech. 

4. Language is a subject which every one 
has to study from the time he is a year old 
until he dies. Whether he goes to school or 
not makes no difference in the necessity. Every- 
body has to use language, and has continually 
to study what he shall say. If he does not 
study his words, , he will always be in trouble. 

In order to speak correctly and effectively, 
it is best to study language with some system. 
Daily puzzling over words does much for the 
uneducated man, but he never can feel sure 
that he is speaking correctly. Even if we 
speak well, we cannot be sure why we speak as 
we do unless we study what is called grammar. 1 

1 Note the spelling of grammar. 


5. Grammar is the sj^stematic study of lan- 
guage, and especially of the forms of words 
and their combinations in sentences. In this 
book we can only begin the systematic study 
of language. We have to do chiefly with what 
are called "grammatically correct" ways of 
speaking and writing. 

6. Our text-book is called a book of applied 
grammar, because it attempts to show you how 
to apply grammatical principles in your every- 
day use of language. It offers a great many 
exercises in the art of speaking and writing 





7. Grammatical usage is using such " forms of 
words," and such combinations of them in sen- 
tences, as are considered correct by the best 
writers and speakers. 

Johns is a form of John ; leaves, of leaf; him, 
of he; hegan and begun, of begin; drowned, of 
drown. Isn't is a correct form of is not; ain't 
is an incorrect form. He has begun is a correct 
combination ; he has began is an incorrect com- 
bination. Leaves are is a correct combination, 
leaves is an incorrect. 

8. Vulgar usage. All mistakes in grammar 
(whether incorrect forms or incorrect combina- 
tions) are vulgarisms. Vulgar means " pertain- 
ing to the crowd." The great mass or crowd 
of people have, as yet, but little education. 
No man has a right to despise uneducated 
persons, for they are often the superiors of edu- 
cated persons in character, in natural ability, 



and in force of expression. Uneducated per- 
sons say " I hain't done no such thing," merely 
because they have never learned to say " I've 
done no such thing," or " I haven't done any 
such thing." Uneducated persons are usually 
the last persons in the world to wish their 
children to employ vulgar expressions. 

9. There are other vulgarisms besides mis- 
takes in grammar. A bad pronunciation (as 
jest for just) is a vulgarism. Slang words are 
usually vulgarisms, but not often mistakes in 

The following passages contain vulgarisms, 
but only the italic words are faults in grammar. 
Point out all expressions which seem to you 

A. " Oh, Daddy! They're gone. Wh at made you let 
them go ? Oh, what made you? " 

"Wa'al, Mandy sassed me, 'n' I told her 't I guessed 
we c'd git along without her. This house ain't good 
'nough fer her sence she's been to the city ; she wants 
carpits and picters an' things, so I jes' told her right out 
plain she might go an' stay if she wanted to, she was 
gittin' too fine fer us. I vow, I never see sech a sassy 

" Oh, Daddy ! You quarrelled with Mandy ? " 

" Wa'al, I guess you kin call it that if you want tew ; 
it wa'rit nothin' else. She's ashamed of her brother ; she 


said so right out an' out, and she's ashamed o' me too. 
I've seen it stickin' out a good while, but I hain't said 
nothin'. She don't want me to say much when her 
comp'ny comes. She tole me so once. S'pose I don't 
talk propei- 'nough to suit her. It's hurt my feelin's 
terrible, but I've kep' it to myself. Didn't hev nobody to 
send me to school — when I was a boy — m' father died 
— had to work — ter take care o' mother an' Dick." A 
cough grappled with a sob in the old man's throat as he 
bent to hide the struggle and lay a stick of wood on the 
dead ashes. — Eleanor C. Reed : "The Battle Invisible." 

B. " Beautiful night, ain't it ? " said Granville. i 
Ellen noticed that Granville said " ain't " instead of 

"isn't," according to the fashion of his own family, 
although he was recently graduated from the High 
School. . . . She also noted that Granville presently 
said "wa'n't" instead of "wasn't." "Hot yesterday, 
ma' n't it ? " said he. 

" Yes, it was very warm," replied Ellen. That " wa'n't " 
seemed to insert a tiny wedge between them. She would 
have flown at any one who had found fault with her 
father and mother for saying " wa'n't," but with this 
young man in her own rank and day it was different. . . . 
She wanted to reproach him sharply ; to ask him if he 
had ever been to school. — Mary E. Wilkins : "The 
Portion of Labor." 

C. " It ain't where a man is born or where he was raised 
that puts him in any class. It's whether he's got any- 
thing under his hat. I seen too many of these boys kind 
o' jump in from the country, and make a lot o' city boys 
look like rabbits. You see, Mr. Miller, when a guy comes 
in from the country he figures it out : ' Here, I'm goin' 
against a tough proposition, and I've got to hump myself 
to keep up.' He's willin' to learn a few things and do 
the best he can. If he feels that way, he stands to win 


out. But if he comes canterin' into town to be a dead- 
game sport, and set a pace for all the boys, he don't last. 
It's a small town, but it's too big for any one boy to come 
in from the country and scare it. Them sporty boys 
don't last." — George Ade : " Artie." 

10. Literary usage. Vulgar usage is the usage 
of the uneducated masses. At the other ex- 
treme is the language of the few who write 
books. The language of books is called literary 
usage. But so many people write books nowa- 
days that literary usage varies a great deal. 
What may be called scholastic usage never per- 
mits such shortened forms as cant, dont, doesn't, 
isn't, aren't. There are subjects so serious and 
formal in their nature that in treating them it 
would sound out of place to use can't for cannot, 
and dont for do not. On the other hand, some 
of the best books are not scholastic in tone, but 
sound like the conversational language of edu- 
cated persons. In conversational literary usage 
the short forms given above often appear. Con- 
versational literary usage does not admit slang 
except in rare instances. 

The language of books is important to us 
partly because it teaches us the mechanical 
forms of written English. It teaches us how to 
punctuate, capitalize, italicize, paragraph, and 


11. Conversational usage. The language used 
by educated persons in conversation is called 
conversational usage. It is correct in all essen- 
tial matters of grammar, but it often admits 
such contractions as can't^don't, isn't, Tve no, and 
it sometimes admits fresh and kindly slang. 1 

Conversational usage is the proper model for 
students to follow in their oral use of English. 
It is very often the proper model for them to 
follow in their written work. In a formal busi- 
ness letter there is no place for even the best of 
slang, and none for contracted forms like can't 
and isn't. But in friendly letters we write in 
the conversational tone, so that we shall seem 
to be talking. 

12. The chief mistakes in grammar occur 
through ignorance of the best conversational 
usage. The actual number of such mistakes is 
not very large, but each is considered serious. 
No educated man says aint for isn't, or set for 
sit, or has went for has gone. If a person is free 
from such expressions as these, he is at once 

1 The instructor will be interested in Professor Thurston 
Peck's words about slang, in the essay called "The Little 
Touches. 1 ' A short passage is quoted in the present writer's 
" Second Manual of Composition. " 


recognized as having some education. It is 
astonishing to see how far a knowledge of a 
dozen correct forms of expression will carry a 
man in the opinion of the educated. The per- 
son who passes as educated is not he who 
pronounces words with airs of superiority. 
The man who passes as educated is the man 
who never says ain't. 

The next few chapters are devoted to a few 
important matters of conversational usage. 



13. Verb defined. A verb is a word which 
asserts. Usually it asserts an act, as in burns, 
runs, strikes, but sometimes it merely asserts, 
as in is, are, were. Sometimes a group of 
words is used as a verb, for example has burnt, 
will run, can strike. 

14. Subject defined. With every verb, usu- 
ally before it, goes a word to show who is 
acting or is spoken of. This word is called 
the subject of the verb. In " Birds fly " the 
subject is birds. Sometimes this subject means 
one person or thing, as bird. It is then called 
a " singular" subject. Sometimes it means 
more than one, as birds, in which case it is 
called a "plural " subject. 

15. Singular and plural verbs. Verbs may have 
different forms, according as their subjects are 



singular or plural. " One bird flies" but 
" Two birds fly." The plural subject often 
ends in s (birds); but the plural verb almost 
never ends in s. Note the following plural verbs : 
burn, run, strike, sing, have, are, were, seem, sound. 

16. Oral Exercise. Place a subject before 
each plural verb in the following sentences. 

1. sing. 9. seem sweet. 

2. burn. 10. run. 

3. jump. 11. — do not run. 

4. have wings. 12. sound bad. 

5. have legs. 13. chatter. 

6. have trouble. 14. sulk. 

7. are caught. 15. win success. 

8. were present. 

17. In vulgar usage, people often employ 
the singular form of the verb wdiere the plural 
is needed. They say, " The folks has got 
home," " The chickens is running loose," " The 
horses draws the wagon," instead of the correct 
forms, " The folks have got home," " The chick- 
ens are running loose," " The horses draw the 

The subject you takes the verbs are and were, 
even when it means only one person. Every 


member of the class should repeat rapidly the 
following : 

/ was there, you were there, he was there ; was I there f 
were you there f ivas he there ? 

When the verb comes first, as in " There are 
two of us," there is great danger of saying 
There's for There are. Each member of the 
class should repeat the following aloud : 

There's one, there are two, there are several. 

18. Oral Exercise. Insert is or are in 

the blanks. Harvest apples an early 

fruit ; they ripe in summer, and 

very welcome. Other kinds of apples 

autumn fruits. Some very late ripeners, 

and kept all winter. The baldwin a 

spicy autumn apple. There few better 

apples than the baldwin, but there some 

people who do not like baldwins. There 

lots 1 of other late apples. The greening 

one. The northern spy another. Still 

another the pippin. Then there 

russets and wine-saps and spitzenburgs. There 

1 The expressions There are lots and There 1 s a lot are 
grammatically correct, but they are not much found in the 
best conversational usage. They sound too much like 
"There's a job-lot." 


the king apple, which is a favorite with 

most boys. There a lot which might be 

said about apples, but the best thing to do 

to read what Thoreau and John Burroughs 
have said on the subject. 

19. Oral Exercise. Insert was or were 

in the blanks. We going trout-fishing, 

Herbert and I. We passing through a 

wood-road. On either side there patches 

of swamp. Suddenly a young grouse flew up 
by the road. We stopped at once, thinking 

that there probably others. We not 

mistaken. We glanced ahead, and there, about 

thirty feet away, a young cock-partridge 

entering the road. He walked slowly across 
the wagon-tracks to the other side, where there 

some tall weeds. He passed through 

these, and found that there a ditch full 

of water. He paused and looked at the ditch, 

then at us. We still as two stumps. 

Then Mr. Partridge turned about, concluding 

that there worse things than men. He 

marched calmly across the road again, lifting 
his ruff a little, and disappeared as he came. 

We agreed that there never a prettier 



20. Insert has or have in the blanks. There 

are several deer that been seen on our 

island this summer. None 1 been seen 

very lately, but about two weeks ago there 

were three in our corn patch. There 

been one just across on the mainland almost 
every morning. His tracks are plain to see, 
and Mr. Ware caught sight of him sev- 
eral times. The Ware children seen him 

too, and tell me he is a big buck, that 

magnificent antlers. Last year I saw two deer 
myself. There is a thicket of arbor-vitse trees 

by the river, into which people rarely 

penetrated. A lot 2 of big trees been cut 

down near it. The deer were among these 
trees. When they saw me, they seemed almost 
to fly over the fallen trees, and instantly dis- 
appeared in the thicket. 

21. Singular verb with "either" and " nei- 
ther." Very often the word either means either 
one, and very often neither means neither one. 
This is true in such sentences as " Either is 
right," "Neither John nor Harry has gone." 

1 None may take either has or have. None means no one, 
but it may be thought of as meaning no tivo, no three, etc. 

2 Lot is singular, but lot of trees may be thought of as 


Whenever these words are used as subjects, 
or with singular subjects, they must take a 
singular verb. 

22. Oral Exercise. Use correct forms of 
the following verbs with the word neither as 
subject: burn, sleep, rise, sit, jump, think, 
fear, hope, lack, go. 

23. Oral Exercise. Supply correct forms 
of the verb to be in the blanks. 1. Neither of us 

there yesterday. 2. Either man a 

good one. 3. Neither likely to succeed. 

4. Either one in danger of failing. 

5. Neither to blame that time. 6. Either 

one general or the other to blame for that 

defeat. 7. Neither birch, cedar, poplar, nor 

pine so hard as oak. 8. Neither Alger, 

Castleman, Oliver Optic, nor Henty so 

artistic a writer as Stevenson. 9. Neither 

Greene, Richard Lee, Stark, nor Wayne 

so great a general as Washington. 10. Neither 

Grant nor Sherman a greater genius than 

Robert Lee. 11. Neither Lee nor Sherman 
so tenacious as Grant. 12. Neither Sher- 
man nor Lincoln so silent as Grant. 

13. Neither Grant nor any of his generals 



so great a statesman as Lincoln. 14. Neither 
Lincoln nor Grant so polished a gentle- 
man as Robert Lee. 15. Neither Grant nor 

any one of his generals so tender-hearted 

as Lincoln. 16. Neither North nor South — — 
slow to fight against Spain. 

24. When the subject is such an expression 
as either he or I the question arises whether we 
shall say is or am. It is best in such cases to 
avoid the difficulty by so changing the sen- 
tence as to use both is and am. We say 
"Either he is to blame, or I am." In like 
manner we say " Either you are to blame, or I 
am," " Either he is to blame or you are." 



25. Correct equivalents of " ain't." In conver- 
sation it is usual to contract many verbs, as in 
dont for do not, doesn't for does not. Vulgar 
usage often makes contractions of its own, and 
one of the worst of these is the negative form 
ain't, which is made to serve for am not, are not, 
etc. It is clear that am not cannot be contracted ; 
for contraction consists in omitting or shorten- 
ing some vowel (like 0), and if you omit the 
vowel from am not, the result is amn't, a 
word too hard to pronounce. But / am not 
and you are not can be contracted into Tm 
not, and you re not or you aren't. 

26. A very large proportion of boys and girls 
say ain't . If the study of grammar should teach 
them anything, it should teach them not to do 
this, but to use the proper contractions. Every 
grammar class should be an &nti-ain't club. It 



should be a club for the promotion of isn't and 
such forms. But we shall never be wholly rid 
of this error until boys have courage to say isn't 
on the play ground. Some boys who are not 
afraid of a hot ball or a rusty gun are afraid to 
say isn't, for fear of being thought pretentious. 
Now some forms of speech would be pretentious 
in a boy. A lad who always said " Cannot you 
go ? " would sound like a little prig. But there 
is nothing priggish in refusing to say ain't. A 
boy who says isn't can play ball as well, shoot 
as well, and if necessary fight as well as the boy 
who is content with the slovenly expression ain't. 

27. The correct conversational equivalents 
of ain't are given below. They should be mas- 
tered perfectly, and the student who has learned 
them should never again say ain't, except in joke. 
Notice that in many cases there are two correct 
equivalents of the incorrect expression. 

Singular, in statements. 

I'm not 

you're not or you aren't 

he's not or he isn't 

Plurals, in statements. 

we're not or we aren't 
you're not or you aren't 
they're not or they aren't 

Singular, in questions. 
am I not ? 
aren't you? 
isn't he? 

Plural, in questions. 

aren't we ? 
aren't you ? 
aren't they ? 


28. Oral Exercise. Give the correct con- 
tracted equivalents of ain't before the word 
going — thus: " I'm not going ; you're not going 
or you aren't going," etc. ; also the same equiv- 
alents before sorry, before hungry, and before 

29. "It is" with "not" and "no." With not, 
the form it is contracts to it isnt, 'tisn't, or it's 
not. It is no contracts in like manner to 
it's no. 

30. Oral Exercise. Use It's not before 
each of the following expressions : too late ; so 
had as you think ; so far after all ; more than two 
miles ; every man that can tell the truth ; all that 
you could wish; as thy mother says, but as thy 
neighbors say. 

31. Oral Exercise. Use 'Tisn't before 
each of the following : John ; Monday ; time 
for dinner ; over there. 

Each member of the class should repeat : 
'Tisn't so; 'tisn't any such thing. 

32. Oral Exercise. Use It's no before 
each of the following : ivonder ; easy task ; 


small undertaking ; farther than we thought; 
sign of death tvhen a bird flies in ; fun to pound 
your finger ; use to cry over spilt milk ; more 
than right. 

33. There's no. The form there's no, con- 
tracted from there is no, means the same as there 
isn't any. The student should form the habit 
of using one contraction as freely as the 

34. Oral Exercise. Use There's no before 
the following: smoke ivithout fire; art that can 
make a fool wise ; going to heaven in a sedan 
chair ; sense in grumbling ; reason for whining ; 
apple like a russet; royal road to learning ; such 
flatterer as a mans self; lack of funds ; surety 
of success except in hard ivork ; man but hath 
enemies ; arguing with an east wind. 

35. " Not " with " was " and " were." The forms 
I was not, you were not, he was not, we were not, 
they ivere not, may shorten in conversation to I 
wasn't, you weren't, he wasn't, we weren't, they 

The forms was not I? were not you? was not 
he? were not we? were not they? may shorten into 


wasn't I? weren't you? wasn't he? weren't we? 
weren't they? 

36. Oral Exercise. Use the contracted 
forms of section 35 before the word going and 
before the word angry. 

37. "Were" with "if" and "as if." The 

form ivere is usually plural, as in we were going. 
It would be wrong to say "I were going." 
But ^Vhen preceded by if or as if the form were 
is either singular or plural, and can refer to 
past, present, or future time. " We were here 
yesterday " states a fact. " If I were you " 
states a mere supposition. Of course " I " can- 
not possibly be "you," but we can suppose that 
"I" were "you." 

With if and as if the verb were states a mere 
supposition, and is either singular or plural. 

38. The following forms should be learned : 

if I were if I weren't 
if you were if you weren't 
if he were if he weren't 

if we were if we weren't 
if you were if you weren't 
if they were if they weren't 

39. Oral Exercise. Give the forms of 
section 38 before the word going ; " If I were 


going," etc. ; also before you, before a king, 
and before sure. 

40. Written Exercise. Write from dicta- 
tion the following sentences, numbering them: 
1. If it were evening, we should have the 
lamps lighted. 2. If it weren't so cold, we 
could go fishing. 3. If it were four o'clock, 
we should be out of school. 4. If it weren't 
for hawks, the field mice would ruin the crops. 
5. If it were war-time, the boys and women 
would have to run the farms. 6. If it weren't 
for fear of being called cowards, few men w T ould 
be heroes. 7. If it were a bear, it would bite 

41. Written Exercise. Write from dicta- 
tion the following sentences: 1. If there were 
more honest men, the rogues would be pun- 
ished. 2. If there were no work, there could 
be no play. 3. If there were as many horses 
as wishes, the beggars could ride. 4. If there 
were no trouble, there could be no happiness. 
5. If there were a king in this country, there 
would not be seventy million kings. 6. If 
there were no darkness, we should not know 
light when we saw it. 7. If there were a 


plenty of them, diamonds would be called 

42. Oral Exercise. Supply the right word 
at the place indicated by a blank. 1. He talks 

as if he crazy. 2. She dresses as if she 

a princess. 3. He spends money as if it 

water. 4. The child looks as if it 

tired. 5. It rained as if there a flood. 

6. The thunder sounds as if it in the very 

house. 7. The fox runs as easily as if he 

a leaf before the breeze. 8. Fido acts as if he 

mad. 9. The teacher speaks as if she 

sure the class understood the lesson. 10. The 
pupil recited as if he master of the subject. 

11. It looks as if there to be more rain. 

12. I feel as if I being scolded. 13. I 

must act as if I at ease. 14. The work- 
men have stopped at five, just as if it six. 

15. He remarks that the pickerel is a greedy 

fish; just as if every fish n't greedy! 16. It 

isn't as if there no other books to be had. 

17. They ran from the poodle as if it a lion. 

18. The red squirrel scolded as if he the 

owner of the woods. 19. He talks about stay- 
ing here all the afternoon ; as if there any 

doubt of our catching the train ! 


43. "Have" with "not" and "been." The fol- 
lowing contractions should be learned : 

I haven't been I've not been 

you haven't been you've not been 

he hasn't been he's not been 

we haven't been we've not been 

you haven't been you've not been 

they haven't been they've not been 

44. Oral Exercise. Give the contracted 
forms of section 43 before each of the following 
in turn : there ; going ; at home ; thinking of 
going ; 'planning to go; afraid of examinations. 

45. The literary forms there has not been any 
and there have not been any are contracted in 
conversation to there hasn't been any, there haven't 
been any. The literary forms there has been no 
and there has been none are contracted in con- 
versation to there's been no, there's been none. 
The form there have been none cannot easily be 
pronounced in any contracted form. 

46. Oral Exercise. Give the following 
sentences with proper contractions of the italic 
expressions. Supply words to any blanks. 

1. It has not been long since we began the 


study of contractions. 2. It has not been the 
umpire's fault. 3. It has not always been as it 
is now. 4. It has not been many days since we 
returned from our vacation. 5. There has not 
been any serious ground for complaint. 6. There 
have not been any serious grounds for complaint. 
7. There has been no serious ground for com- 
plaint. 8. There been no serious grounds 

for complaint. 9. There has been no doubt 
that team-work won the victory. 10. There 

been no doubts that the team-work won. 

11. There has been no cleverer pupil in school 

for a long time. 12. There been no cleverer 

pupils than those I speak of. 13. There 

been no cases of that disease lately. 14. There 

been no great generals who did not attend 

to details. 15. There has been no day thus far 
when we couldn't work on the cabin. 16. There 
has been no problem yet, in our algebra, that I 
haven't solved by myself. 17. There has never 
been a result without a cause. 18. There has 
been no rule without an exception. 19. There 
has been no reason for not getting my lessons. 
20. There has been no question in my mind about 
the outcome. 



47. Affirmative contractions. The forms I 
have, you have, he has, ive have, they have, arc 
often shortened in conversation to Tve, you've 
he's, we've, they've. But the form he's is less 
used than the others, because it is "ambigu- 
ous" — it may be taken in two senses. Point 
out two possible meanings of the sentence " He's 
a father." 

48. Oral Exercise. Use the contractions 
of section 47 (excepting he's) before the words 
a book; a notion; none. 

49. Contractions of "have" with "no." The 

forms I have no, you have no, he has no, we have 
no, they have no, are often shortened in conver- 
sation to Tve no, you've no, he's no, we've no, 
they've no. But " He's no father " might mean 
what ? 



The forms I had no, you had no, he had no, 
we had no, they had no, are often shortened to 
Td no, you'd no, he'd no, we'd no, they'd no. 

50. Oral Exercise. Use the ten con- 
tractions Tve no, you've no, he's no, we've no, 
they've no, I'd no, you'd no, he'd no, we'd no, 
they'd no before each of these expressions : 
chance; fear ; money; excuse; interest; concern. 

51. Contractions of "have" with "not." Have 
not is often shortened to haven't, and has not to 

52. Oral Exercise. Use the contractions 
I haven't, you haven't, he hasn't, we haven't, you 
haven't, they haven't, before each of the follow- 
ing expressions in turn : a dollar ; the chance ; 
any ; time eiwugh. 

53. Oral Exercise. Use the contractions 
haven't I? haven't you ? hasn't he ? haven't we ? 
haven't they ? before these expressions in turn : 
enough; gone far enough; some matches ; made 
a mistake ; said so ; any. 

54. Uncontracted forms in questions. Except 
in the case of haven't and hasn't, the question 
forms of have cannot properly be contracted 


(though vulgar usage shows the false con- 
traction "hain't"). Thus we say, "Have 
you a pen ? " " Have you no pen ? " " Had 
you no pen ? " " Have you none ? " " Had you 
none ? '' These forms are employed only by 
careful speakers, but they are not pretentious, 
and it is much to the credit of a young person 
to use them sometimes. It is true that " Had 
you no pen ? " is more formal than " Didn't you 
have a pen ? ", and that " Have you none ? " is 
more formal than " Haven't you any ? " But 
one who is familiar with the forms containing 
no and none can use them without a trace of 
assuming airs. 

55. Oral Exercise. Use the forms Have 
la? Have you a? Has he a? Have we a? Have 
you a ? with each of these words : pencil ; 
chance ; good excuse ; lesson to get ; reason. 

56. Oral Exercise. Use the forms Have 
you no ? Has he no ? Have we no ? Have they 
no ? with each of these words : book ; sense of 
shame; hope; better plan ; longer to 10 ait. 

57. Oral Exercise. Use the forms Had 
you no ? Had he no ? Had we no ? Had they no ? 


with each of these words : fear; money ; friend; 
way of escape. 

58. "Have" with "got." The use of have got 
is extremely common in vulgar usage, where it 
usually means no more than have. The word 
got properly means "acquired"; I have got means 
"I have acquired." We may have a thing 
without having put forth any effort to get it. 
A man fishing may properly shout " I've got 
him," signifying that he has captured a fish. 
Yet if he shouted only " I have him," the idea 
of getting would be taken for granted. 

59. The use of got is far less frequent in good 
conversational usage than it is in vulgar usage. 
But even the best speakers do not hesitate to 
use have got at times to make their meaning 

60. When used in such sentences as " I've 
got none," the got serves to lessen the formality 
of the expression. Such sentences are fairly 
common in good conversational usage, though 
they are not so good as w I have none," etc. 

61. Oral Exercise. Use the expressions 

I've got no, you've got no, he's got no, we've got 


no, they've got no, before each of these words : 
excuse; money ; fish; solution to the problem; 

62. Review Exercise. Examine the fol- 
lowing sentences and say whether any contain 
contractions (like there's no) that you yourself 
rarely use. Commit to memory as many sen- 
tences as 3^our instructor directs. Aid him in 
deciding which forms are most important for 
you individually to remember. 

1. (a) You're trying to make that boy 
another you. One is enough. — Emerson. 

(5) " You're no Alexander," said Alexander 
to a coward who bore the name ; " you must 
either drop my name or honor it." 

2. (a) The wounded Highland chief Mc- 
Gregor raised himself on his elbow and said, 
" I'm not dead, my laddies ; I'm looking to see 
you do your duty." 

(J) "I'm not afraid," said a lighthouse 
keeper ; " the lights keep me too busy to be 

3. "I should like some soup," said the sick 
banker Ostervalde ; " but I've no wish for 
the meat, and it would be a pity to waste 


4. (a) If the power to do hard work isn't 
talent, it is the best possible substitute for 
talent. — Garfield. 

(J) Once in the house of representatives, 
when John Quincy Adams was a member, a 
gentleman said, " It is time to begin." — " No," 
said another, " the clock must be fast ; Mr. 
Adams isn't in his seat yet." 

5. (a) There's nothing either good or bad 
but thinking makes it so. — Shakspere. 

(b) A servant whispered to Madame de 
Maintenon at dinner, " Please, Madame, one 
more anecdote, for there's no roast to-day." 

(js) There's no arguing with an east wind. 
— Emerson. 

6. " There aren't many places on Beacon 
Street that weren't built by the savings of ser- 
vant girls," said Josiah Quincy of Boston. 

7. Henry Fawcett had no eyesight, but 
he became postmaster-general of England. 
William Prescott had no eyesight, yet he 
became a great historian. 

63. Written Exercise. Write from mem- 
ory each sentence that you learn from 62, 
taking pains with quotation marks and punct- 



64. The "principal parts." Verbs change 
their forms to show different times or "tenses." 
Later we shall study these forms systemati- 
cally. Just now we are concerned with only 
those forms which in vulgar usage are often 

Each verb has three " principal parts." The 
principal parts of the verb begin are : begin, 
began, begun. 

65. The first principal part of a verb shows 
present time, as in " I begin now." 

66. The second principal part of a verb 
shows past time, as in "I began yesterday." 

67. The third principal part of the verb is 
called the u past participle." The following 
forms are examples of past participles : begun, 



taken, drunk, broken, frozen. The past parti- 
ciple is never used by itself, but always has 
before it a helping word like have, has, had, be, 
am, is, are, was, or were. Usually this word is 
have, has, or had, as in i" have begun, He has 
begun, I had begun, I may have begun, I could 
have begun. 

68. The forms of the verb containing the 
past participle show various shades of time. 
In "I had come before nine yesterday," had 
come shows a past time earlier than another 
past time ("nine o'clock yesterday"). In "I 
have just come," have come shows a time just 
now past. " I shall have conquered," speaks of 
an act as finished in the future. But in " I 
mag perhaps have conquered " the thought of 
future time is almost swallowed up in the 
thought of the speaker's doubting mood, ex- 
pressed in the words mag and perhaps. 

69. Our chief business for the present is to 
learn to use the principal parts of certain verbs 
without confusing them.' There are hundreds 
of verbs in using which nobody is likely to 
make a mistake ; the verb look, for example. 
The parts of look are look, looked, looked, as 


every one knows. There are, however, about 
forty verbs in using which we are obliged 
to think very carefully of the principal 

The forty verbs that need our especial study 
at this time are as follows : awake, begin, blow, 
break, bring, burst, catch, come, do, drink, eat, 
flow, fly, freeze, give, go, grow, know, lay, lie 
(to recline), ride, ring, rise, run, see, set, shake, 
show, sing, sink, sit, spring, steal, swim, swing, 
take, teach, throw, wring, write. 

We shall do well to proceed to study these, 
some briefly and some fully. 

70. Awake. The three principal parts of 
awake are awake, awoke or awaked, awaked. 
We say " I awake usually about six o'clock ; I 
awoke yesterday at seven, or I awaked yesterday 
at seven ; I have awaked some mornings as 
late as eight." 

We may say "I woke up," or "I waked up," 
but we may not say " I have woke up." 

71. Oral Exercise. Use 7, we, and they in 
turn before the following : wake up, woke up, 
waked up, have awaked, had awaked. Use he 
and she in turn before the following: wakes 


up, woke up, waked up, has waked up, had 
waked up. 

72. Begin. The principal parts of begin are 
begin, began, begun. We say : " School began to- 
day; recitations have already begun" 

73. Oral Exercise. Use He began before 
the following : (1) to help ; (2) to get ready ; 
(3) getting ready ; (4) to study ; (5) study- 
ing ; (6) to study to be a doctor ; (7) studying 
to be a doctor ; (8) drilling to be a soldier ; 
(9) to find fault ; (10) to look pleased ; (11) to 
lose his way ; (12) to answer ; (13) to recite ; 
(14) to laugh ; (15) to make believe ; (16) to 
be afraid; (17) a reply; (18) a composition; 
(19) once more ; (20) over again. 

74. Oral Exercise. Use He has begun 
before each of the numbered expressions in 
section 73. 

75. Oral Exercise. Use It has begun before 
the following : (1) to rain ; (2) to snow ; (3) to 
clear up ; (4) to look cloudy ; (5) to sprinkle ; 
(6) to threaten snow; (7) grow cold; (8) to 
cloud over ; (9) to be misty ; (10) to thunder. 


76. Blow. The principal parts of blow are 
blow, blew, blown. The form " blowed " is a 

When you wish to say that a person made 
a great fuss and talk, say he blustered, or he 
was blustering, about it. Keep blow for such 
things as the wind, and things that move in 
the wind. Use bluster to express the act of 
a person, unless you mean that the person's 
breath was coming short and thick, as in 
" He came out of the water blowing like a 
porpoise, and lay down on the bank quite 

77. Oral Exercise. Use blew in the blanks. 

1. The wind furiously. 2. It a gale. 

3. It the helmsman's cap off. 4. It 

the jib away. 5. It about fifty miles an 

hour. 6. The Maine up. 7. " The fair 

breeze , the white foam flew, the furrow 

followed free." 

Use the participle blown in the blanks. 

1. The helmsman's cap was off. 2. The 

jib was off. 3. His hair was 

about his face. 4. The Maine was per- 
haps up. 5. The nipple of the musket 

was out. 6. The breech of the fowling- 


piece was out. 7. The wind had - 

the balsams down. 8. The hurricane had - 

a great path through the woods. 9. Cyclones 

have horses into the air. 10. Our man 

won the race, but he was badly . 11. This 

breeze may have all the way from Florida. 

12. By to-morrow this northeaster will have 

the mosquitoes away. 13. This morning 

the rose is full . 14. In the last year or 

so her beauty has become full . 15. It's 

an ill wind that has nobody good. 16. The 

trade- winds have our ship home again. 

78. Break. The principal parts of break are 
break, broke, broken. " Have broke " is a vul- 
garism for have broken. 

79. Oral Exercise. Use the correct form 
of the verb break in the blanks. 

1. The governor has his promise. 2. I 

have my wheel. 3. My wheel is . 

4. That timber has his fall. 5. The floor 

has through. 6. The small-pox has 

out. 7. Our man has — — through the line. 

8. That four-pounder has my tackle. 

9. My pole is . 10. Her kind remark 

has the ice for us. 11. These defeats 


have his spirit. 12. The liner will have 

all records. 13. The rain had the 

drought. 14. Such an accident would have 

up the party. 15. Perhaps the soil is 

already . 16. His watch is . 

Change the preceding sentences into negative 
sentences by adding nt to the verbs. In sen- 
tence 12 change will to wont. In 14 add n't 
to would. 

80. Bring. The principal parts of bring are 
bring, brought, brought. "Brung" is a vulgar- 

81. Oral Exercise. Insert brought in the 

1. Home they her warrior dead. 

2. Have you your grammar? 3. I've 

not mine, I'm sorry to say. 4. Have his 

investments him much money ? 5. They 

to him a man sick of the palsy. 6. War 

has always a greater grief to women and 

children than to men. 7. It's his courage 

that's always him good luck. 8. He has 

only trouble to his parents. 9. The rain 

has relief to the corn. 10. Why've you 

your umbrella? 


82. Burst. The principal parts of burst are 
all the same : burst, burst, burst. " Busted " 
and "bursted" are vulgarisms. 

83. Oral Exercise. Insert burst in the 

blanks. 1. My gun is . 2. This shoe is 

. 3. The old coat is in the back. 

4. Then his mighty heart. 5. His scheme 

has . 6. The meteor above the straw- 
stack. 7. The balloon in mid-air. 8. My 

son, why on earth do you always your 

shoes out? You will my bank-account. 

9. They say the bank has . 10. In 

the boys, puffing and blowing. 11. A 

gun is safer than a rusty whole one. 

84. Choose the better word, burst or broken, 
for each of the following blanks. 1. My wheel 

is . 2. The boiler is . 3. His watch 

seems to be . 4. The fire has through 

the window. 5. My fish-rod is . 

85. Catch. The principal parts of catch are 
catch, caught, caught. There is no such word 
as " ketched," in good usage. 

86. Oral Exercise. Use caught in the 
blanks 1. I've him. 2. Has he 


any? 3. Have you any? 4. Have they 

any? 5. He was out in the rain. 

6. He was by the foot. 7. As the tree 

fell, it him across the back. 8. We've 

two foxes this autumn. 9. Now I've 

you. 10. Don't be that way again. 

87. Come. The principal parts of come are 
come, came, come. We may not say " I come 
yesterday " for I came yesterday, nor " I have 
came " for I have come. 

88. Oral Exercise. Use He came before 
each of the following : (1) up to our house ; 
(2) down the hill a-flying ; (3) up the road 
just now ; (4) through the woods an hour ago ; 
(5) by way of Fitchburg ; (6) sooner than he 
was expected ; (7) as soon as he could ; (8) a 
long way to see you ; (9) whenever he could 
get off ; (10) in a buggy ; (11) across lots ; 
(12) on the run ; (13) like a streak of light- 
ning; (14) like an elephant; (15) like an an- 
gel of mercy ; (16) to see me ; (17) to help us ; 
(18) because you called him ; (19) all the way 
from Seattle; (20) by the Fall River line; 
(21) running down ; (22) jumping along ; 
(23) hurrying along ; (24) tumbling down. 


89. Oral Exercise. Use Tve come or We've 
come before the following : (1) to see you ; 
(2) a long way; (3) on a fool's errand; 
(4) from town ; (5) the longest way ; (6) be- 
cause we were asked ; (7) because I'm in 
trouble ; (8) because it's lonesome in the woods ; 

(9) because there's no room in the hotel; 

(10) to see the sights; (11) for the doctor; 
(12) to sit awhile ; (13) to offer my services ; 
(14) to beg a favor ; (15) to ask your advice ; 
(16) to find out something ; (17) to ask a 
question ; (18) to see what you think ; (19) to 
stay awhile ; (20) to supper; (21) since three 
o'clock ; (22) for fun ; (23) for a pail of wa- 
ter ; (24) to dine with the queen ; (25) in a 
hurry ; (26) off without my books ; (27) away 
without an umbrella ; (28) in to see the den- 
tist ; (29) along to take care of him ; (30) as 
soon as we could ; (31) under the railroad 

90. Oral Exercise. Supply the correct 

form of come to the blanks. 1. Has he 

this way before ? 2. Have you never to 

Boston before ? 3. Have they to stay ? 

4. Have the algebras ? 5. Has she 

to dinner ? 6. Haven't they ever that 


way before ? 7. Has he never to beg your 

pardon ? 8. Has he never with an ex- 
cuse ? 9. Aren't these the ones that ? 

10. Isn't there a bolt that with it ? 

11. Didn't any answer to your mind ? 

12. Did no umbrella to light? 13. Had 

no mail when you left ? 14. Have no let- 
ters for me ? 15. Have no new pupils 

this year ? 16. Haven't you by that 

road before ? 17. Is this the lad that to 

Lawrence from Medford ? 18. Doesn't the 

trolley-car to Maiden ? 19. Did this fruit 

from California ? 20. Have the readers 

; from San Francisco ? 21. If I had known 

you were coming, I would have earlier. 

22. I should have if you had asked me. 

23. I ought to have . 24. I should have 

liked to . 25. I might have . 

91. Do. The principal parts of do are do, did, 
done. " I done," etc., are bad vulgarisms. 

92. The forms I don't, you don't, we don't, and 
they don't are correct contractions of I do not, etc. 

The forms he dont, she don't, it don't are 
universal in vulgar usage, though no one to-day 
says, "he do not," "she do not," "it do not." 


In general, careful speakers say he doesn't, she 
doesn't, it doesnH. 1 

93. Oral Exercise. Use in the blanks 
did or done, according to the requirements of 

1. I as you said. 2. That's just what I 

. 3. We so. 4. You what you 

were told. 5. Is that what he ? 6. You 

nobly. 7. Now you've gone and it. 

8. Have you as you were bid ? 9. Is 

that what he's ? 10. What's he 

now ? 11. How could you have so much ! 

12. What is cannot be undone. 13. You 

nothing that could have any 


94. Drink. The past of drink is drank, ex- 
cept that with have, has, and had the form drunk 
is used, thus : "We drank some milk, and when 
we had drunk enough we started on." " Had 
drank" would be a vulgarism. 

1 Some excuse for he don't, etc., is found in the fact that 
do has occasionally been used for does by reputable authors. 
The Oxford Dictionary gives examples from the years 1547, 
1553, and 1559. In 1660 Pepys writes, "Sir Arthur Hasel- 
rigge do not yet appear in the house." 


95. Oral Exercise. Use / drank before 
the following : (1) some spring-water ; (2) as 
much as possible ; (3) a long swallow ; (4) a 
long time ; (5) in silence ; (6) two cups of 
coffee ; (7) boiled water, for fear of typhoid : 
(8) like a man dying of thirst ; (9) enough to 
quench thirst ; (10) out of a quaint cocoanut 

96. Oral Exercise. Use I have drunk 
before each of the numbered expressions in 
section 95. 

97. Oral Exercise. Use He has drunk 
before each of the numbered expressions in 
section 95. 

98. Eat. The principal parts of eat are eat, 
ate, eaten. It would once have been correct to 
say, " I eat (pronounced ei) no dinner yester- 
day," but this form of the past is no longer 
used. Instead we say ate, pronounced like 

99. Oral Exercise. Use ate in the blanks. 

1. What was that you ? 2. Did what 

you agree with you ? 3. Whatever he 

seemed to agree with him. 4. I never 

so good a peach before. 5. I have rarely 


eaten anything so good as some raw bacon that 

I one night in the woods after an all-day 

fast. 6. The boy cannot study ; he some 

mince pie last night. 7. She wonders why her 

head aches ; she crackers and a pickle 

for lunch. 8. That fine old man laughed, and 
said that he was usually nourished by the vict- 
uals he . 9. Mr. John Burroughs says 

that the apples that boys used to do some- 
thing to remedy the bad effects of cake and pie. 

10. Our teacher always whole-wheat 

bread, because, she said, white bread merely 
heats, without feeding nerves and brain. 

100. Oral Exercise. Fill the blanks with 
eaten. 1. Something that I've has disa- 
greed with me. 2. These lads will have 

me out of house and home. 3. It's surprising 

how what one's and drunk takes away 

one's appetite. 4. Snails are - in China and 

in America. 5. If it had been a bear, 'twould 
have you. 

101. Flow. Flow is a verb used of liquids. 
The principal parts are flow, flowed, flowed. 

102. Fly. Fly is a verb used of winged crea- 
tures. The principal parts are fly, flew, flown. 


103. Oral Exercise. Use flowed or flown 
in each blank, according to your best judgment. 

1. The bird has % 2. Much water has 

under bridges since we last met, but the 

time seems to have . 3. Siloa's brook 

near Zion hill. 4. The train has almost 

along for the last hour. 5. When youth 

has , ambition has often fled. 6. The 

enemy fled in the night across the river that 

between the camps. In the morning, lo ! 

the bird had . 

104. Freeze. The principal parts of freeze 
are freeze, froze, frozen. We may not say "is 
froze " for is frozen. 

105. Oral Exercise. Use frozen in the 

blanks. 1. The rope is . 2. The pitcher 

is . 3. The ropes had to the sailor's 

hands. 4. The salt sea was on her cheek. 

5. The moon is a body. 6. The bad boy 

was by a look. 7. Her manner was freez- 
ing. Every one near her felt . 8. The 

tug was in. 9. The roads have up. 

10* Thoreau speaks of the thawed 




106. Give. The principal parts of give are 
give, gave, given. We may not say " I give him 
something yesterday " for I gave, etc. 

107. Go. The past form of go is went. With 
have, has, had, is, and are, the participle gone is 
used, as in I have gone. The form " have went " 
is now a bad vulgarism — as bad as airit — 
though once it was good English, meaning 
"have wended." 

108. Oral Exercise. (J.) Supply the cor- 
rect form of give in the blanks. 1. The horse 

a jump then, but I him a cut with 

the whip, and didn't him a chance to run. 

2. The officer him one tap, and he 

up. 3. That wheel you me has out 

already ; it out the very first week after 

you it to me. 

(2?) Supply the correct form of go. 1. If 

I'd known you were going, I would have 

too. 2. If it hadn't been that you had , 

I couldn't very well have . 3. If you'd 

not all , and we'd not known you'd , 

we couldn't well have either. 

109. Grow. The principal parts of grow are 
grow, grew, grown. The expression " growed " 
is a vulgarism. 


110. Oral Exercise. Fill the blanks cor- 
rectly with grew or grown. 1. There was an oak 

that near our house. 2. An oak near 

our house. 3. A white-oak has often to be 

seventy-five feet high. 4. He is a man. 

5. A sensitive plant in a garden . 6. When 

he up he became a doctor. 7. Before they 

are up, boys want to be car-drivers, police- 
men, pirates. 8. That elm has to a great 

height. 9. It wonderfully cold. 10. If I 

had known how big he had , I should have 

written to him differently. 

111. Know. The principal parts of know are 
know, knew, known. The expression " knowed " 
is a vulgarism. 

112. Oral Exercise. Supply knew or known 
in the blanks, according to your best judgment. 

1. He is the best runner that ever I . 

2. He's the best I've . 3. We've not 

how to act in such a case. 4. They've not 

the difference. 5. If you'd what we , 

you'd not have gone. 6. Who at that time 

that so much would so soon be about the 

Philippines ? 7. They who said that Spain 

was ill-prepared for war. 8. I — — it. 9. I've 


always it. 10. You might have it. 

11. Everybody else it. 12. We've 

but little of him lately. 13. We might have 

more. 14. Aristotle has been as the 

" master of those who know." 15. Aristotle 

more of science than any other man of his 

time. 16. I told him I how. 

113. Lie. There is a verb lie which means 
to tell a falsehood. It has such present forms as 
lie and lies, in " We lie if we say that," " He 
lies if he says that," and the past form lied, in 
" He lied." No one often makes mistakes in 
the forms of this verb. 

The other verb lie refers to a physical act, the 
opposite of standing or sitting. Its parts are 
lie, lay, lain. Some of its forms are as follows, 
the subjects /, you, etc., being given to show 
how the forms are used. 

Present forms. Past forms. 

I lie or I am lying I lay or I was lying 

you lie or you are lying you lay or you were lying 

he lies or he is lying he lay or he was lying 

we lie or we are lying we lay or we were lying 

they lie or they are lying they lay or they were lying 

114. Okal Exercise. Recite from memory 
the forms given in the two columns above. 


115. Oral Exercise. Use the forms lies 
(or lie), is lying, lay, was (or were) lying, in 
the blanks, making four complete sentences for 
each subject, thus : " The book lies on the table. 
The book is lying on the table. The book lay 
on the table. The book was lying on the table." 

I. A knife on my desk. 2. Snow 

on the ground. 3. A wounded soldier on 

the field. 4. Soot on the hearth. 5. A 

sloop on the river. 6. A trout on the 

bank. 7. A hammer on the bench. 8. A 

sledge on the anvil. 9. A sleeping child 

on the bed. 10. A pin on the floor. 

II. Seven cats asleep. 12. A dead quail 

on the snow. 13. Four Cornish birds 

in the pantry. 14. Three French hens 

ready for roasting. 15. Two turtle doves 

slain by a hunter. 16. A chicken 

basking in the dust. 17. The giant snor- 
ing. 18. The autumn leaves where they 

fell. 19. The soldier where he died. 

20. A Welsh rabbit heavy on the stomach. 

21. Sin heavy on the conscience. 22. The 

new snow light upon the grass. 23. A 

piece of silk on the counter. 24. Uneasy 

the head that wears a crown. 25. The 

fallen angels thick as autumnal leaves. 


116. In commands the verb lie has usually the 
form u lie down." Thus the officer says to his 
men, " Lie down, boys!' : The hunter says to 
his dog, "Lie down, Rover! " 

117. With have, has, had, the proper form of 
lie is lain. 

118. Oral Exercise. Insert the proper 

form of lie. 1. This tree has here a long 

time. 2. Get up. You've in bed long 

enough. 3. That sin has long heavy on 

his soul. 4. We've in the trenches a week, 

waiting for orders. 5. I found my grammar 

all warped and mildewed. It had out on 

the porch all night. 6. I've long enough 

inactive. 7. He's not inactive. 8. We 

found a knife. It had so long in a ditch 

that the handle fell off when touched. 9. The 
charge has been laid at the general's door that 

he has still when he ought to have moved 

on the enemy. 10. Your book has there 

all the time, just where you laid it. 

119. Lay. The past form of lie, meaning 
reclined, is lay. But there is a verb to lay 
which means to place down. Its parts are lay, 
laid, laid. This verb almost always shows the 


action of a person or a machine : " John lays the 
book on the table." "The printing press lays 
the paper down." Birds, insects, and fish are 
spoken of as laying eggs. 

120. The verb lay takes another word after it 
to show what is laid. This word is called its 
object. The object in "The boy lays down his 
knife " is the word knife. 

The object of a verb is a word or words show- 
ing on what the action falls. 

Remember that the expressions LAYS DOWN 
and LAID DOWN must always take an object. 

The verb lie never takes an object, though 
"He lay down" means almost the same as "He 
laid himself down." 

121. The more important forms of lay are 
given below, in connection with an object (the 
word knife) and the word down. 

Present forms. Past forms. 

I lay the knife down I laid the knife down 

you lay the knife down you laid the knife down 

he lays the knife down he laid the knife down 

we lay the knife down we laid the knife down 

they lay the knife down they laid the knife down 

122. Oral Exercise. Repeat from memory 
the present and past forms of lay, together with 


an object, as the knife, and the word down, as 
given in section 121. 

123. Oral Exercise. Supply the correct 
past of lie or lay to each blank, and tell which 

verb it belongs to. 1. There he . 2. There 

he it. 3. He there all tired out. 

4. He it there and went away. 5. He 

out there on the cliff. 6. He out some 

bread and cheese for us. 7. King Richard 

about him many a blow (or about him with 

his good sword). 8. Many fallen knights 

about their king. 9. The launch along- 
side the steamer. 10. The sailors the rope 

along the deck. 

124. Oral Exercise. Insert laid. 1. He's 

the blame where it ought to lie. 2. We've 

the sidewalk early, so that it will lie solid 

and smooth before the frosts come. 3. The 

king his weary head on his pillow and lay 

thinking of Shakspere's remark concerning 

crowns and heads. 4. Speckle has an egg, 

but don't touch it! let it lie. 5. I lay down 
and a shawl across me. 

125. Ride. The principal parts of ride are 
ride, rode, ridden. " Have rode" is a vulgarism. 


126. Oral Exercise. Supply ridden in the 

blanks. 1. I've all day. 2. The jockey's 

a good race. 3. Have you ever on a 

locomotive? 4. She's that mule along that 

mountain path ! 5. A horse may be to 

water, but he cannot be made to drink. 6. After 

eating cheese and pie, a sleeper is often by 

a nightmare. 7. Men are still alive who have 

on the first railway cars. 8. Broomsticks 

were supposed to be o'nights by witches. 

9. Who has on a barrel stave down a 

slippery hill ? 10. Circus performers have often 
two horses at once. 

127. Ring. The principal parts of ring are 
ring, rang, rung. It is a vulgarism to say "The 
bell has rang " instead of " The bell has rung." 

128. Rise. The principal parts of rise are 
rise, rose, risen. It is a vulgarism to say "has 
rose," for has risen. 

129. Note that the verb raise, when used 
with such an object as himself, often means rise : 
"The soldier rose a little, raising himself on one 

130. Run. Good usage requires / ran, but 
/ have run ; he ran, but he has run ; they ran, 


but they have run. Such expressions as " I run 
down there a little while ago " are vulgarisms. 

131. Oral Exercise. Supply the form ran 

in each blank. 1. The mill all the summer. 

2. The squirrel into that hole. 3. It 

up a tree. 4. Fido all around. 5. A 

mouse tip the clock. 6. The mouse 

down. 7. The clock down. 8. The de- 
tective the thief down. 9. That fault- 
finder down other people's reputations 

every time he could. 10. My brother 

down here to spend the day. 11. The yacht 

down the bay. 12. The express on 

time for a year. 13. The oldest son the 

farm. 14. The senior partner the busi- 
ness. 15. The conductor his train on time. 

16. Our politician for governor. 17. No 

man against more opposition. 18. The 

colt very well in this race. 19. Our ath- 
lete a very good race. 20. The messen- 
ger-boy in. 21. Up my brother with 

some news. 

132. Oral Exercise. Supply has run in 
all the blanks of section 131 except the last, 
number 21. 


133. See. I have seen is a correct expres- 
sion, but a I seen " is a vulgarism. The correct 
form for " I seen " is I saw. 

134. Oral Exercise. Use saw in each 

blank. 1. I him coming. 2. We 

a lot of ducks. 3. He a bear coming his 

way. 4. We a big fellow trying to break 

through the line. 5. When we got there, we 

how it was. 6. Just as we reached the 

river, we a deer plunge in. 

135. Sit. The verb sit means to rest, as on 
a chair, with the body bent at the hips. The 
past form of sit is sat. In conversational usage 
this verb does not take an object, except in the 
expressions " He sits his horse well," etc., in 
which sit really means sits on. 

136. Oral Exercise. Use the form He sat 
before each of the following : (1) at breakfast ; 
(2) still ; (3) on the fence ; (4) in silence ; 

(5) for some time without saying a word ; 

(6) his horse like a soldier ; (7) in his seat 
when the clock struck ; (8) through the speech ; 
(9) without moving ; (10) alone ; (11) beside 
the brook ; (12) in front of me ; (13) on the 


dunce stool ; (14) in the front row ; (15) up 
late ; (16) under the tree ; (17) out in the 
sun ; (18) out on the porch ; (19) on the end 
of a log ; (20) in the tree-top. 

137. In commands sit is commonly used with 
down: " Sit down!" In requests the form is 
the same, with some such word as please: 
" Please sit down ! " " Kindly sit down ! " 

138. Set. The verb set means chiefly to 
place, and always takes an object except in 
such expressions as " The sun sets," " Plaster 
of Paris sets quickly," and "It set in to rain." 
Remember that the verb SET must have an object. 

The present and past forms of set are the same. 

139. Oral Exercise. Use the past form 
I set before each of the following expressions: 
(1) the dish down just now ; (2) the dish there 
just now; (3) the child down there yesterday ; 
(4) traps in the woods last autumn ; (5) a trap 
last night for a rabbit ; (6) the bolt deep into 
the wood before I fastened it ; (7) the fire go- 
ing a minute ago ; (8) the wood afire ; (9) my 
watch at nine last evening ; (10) the clock by 
my watch this morning ; (11) my room in or- 
der ; (12) out a pail for milk ; (13) the color 


by the use of a chemical ; (14) the bread to 
rise ; (15) myself down then ; (16) the injured 
boy down on a log and went for help ; (17) the 
whole class laughing; (18) the old sailor to 
telling yarns ; (19) myself to work ; (20) my- 
self down to study ; (21) to work ; (22) out ; 
(23) out yesterday to find our cow ; (24) my- 
self that task; (25) much store by that old 
spinning-wheel ; (26) forth in good spirits ; 

(27) the lamp in a safe place before I left ; 

(28) the kettle on to boil ; (29) Bridget to cook 
an omelet ; (30) the pitcher down too hard. 

140. Oral Exercise. Supply sat or set in 
the blanks according to correct usage. 1. The 

knight on his horse. 2. The knight 

himself on his horse. 3. The boy up to 

play tenpins. 4. The boy up the ten- 
pins. 5. The cat up to howl. 6. The 

cat up a howl. 7. The lynx up on 

a limb. 8. The dog up a barking at 

sight of the lynx. 9. I down a dish of 

hot maple syrup. 10. I accidentally down 

in the dish of hot syrup. 11. We may 

it down that by the age of twenty a boy's char- 
acter has become either for good or for 

bad. 12. There he , with hands clenched 


and teeth . 13. There the setter 

with the bird in his mouth. 14. The photog- 
rapher's sitter twice for his portrait. 

15. Will you a price on that chair ? 

16. I mean the one in which the salesman 

just now. 17. It in to rain. 18. We 

in the rain and fished. 19. The tide 

in very strongly at that point. 20. The 

town was in a hollow. 21. The trap lay 

in the hollow, where it was . 22. A 

city that is on a hill cannot be hid. 

23. Neither do men light a candle and 

it under a bushel. 21. She the room 

to rights, and her tired mother and 

looked on. 25. I the scamp down, and 

there he . 26. The boy himself to 

work, and steadily at work for an hour. 

27. We the hen on her nest, and there 

she . 28. Here the bear, looking 

fierce enough to us all a shaking with 

fear. 29. As we were sitting in a row, in 

came Rover all wet, and down beside us, 

— ting up a great disturbance. 30. He who 

has never out to make something of 

himself must expect to see others pass him. 

31. While he idle, others were toiling on 

to the goal they had -~~ before them. 


141. Set regularly takes an object, and in 
commands we usually put the object between set 
and down, thus: " Set the pail down." Such 
an expression as " Set down and rest " is 
wrong, of course, and should be " Sit down 
and rest. 

142. When a hen is set on her nest, the hen 
sits. She is therefore " a sitting hen," and the 
time will probably come when farmers will 
speak of her as such. But meanwhile it is not 
in good taste to criticise too severely the 
expression " setting hen," for almost everybody 
who raises hens uses the expression. Imagine 
a young person fresh from school taking great 
pains to correct this expression in the speech 
of people who know more about hens than he 
ever dreamed of knowing ! 

There is something else to be said in favor 
of an occasional use of " setting hen." What 
other expression is so good when you mean a 
hen reserved for the purpose of being set? 
We speak of " cooking apples," meaning certain 
apples useful for cooking. So we may speak 
of certain hens as good for setting, that is, 
good for being set. Perhaps some hens are 
more useful than others for this purpose. 


One can imagine that a large and lazy hen 
might properly be encouraged to hatch eggs. 

143. Shake. The principal parts of shake 
are shake, shook, shaken. The expression " have 
shook" is a vulgarism for have shaken. 

144. Oral Exercise. Supply shaken in 

the blanks. 1. He's down a nice ripe 

one. 2. When we'd all hands, we sat 

down. 3. They say they're much up by 

being tipped out of the sleigh. 4. Medicine 

is often " to be before it's taken." 5. IVe 

the dust of that town off my feet. 6. The 

dogs seized on Bruin, but he had them off 

in a minute. 7. You mayn't. The teacher's 

her head at you. 8. I'd hardly off 

the first flakes when a whole avalanche slid 
off the roof upon me. 9. " What went ye out 

to see, a reed with the wind?" 10. The 

earth seemed to its foundations. 

145. Show. The principal parts of shoiv are 
show, showed, shown. It is a vulgarism to say 
" have showed " for have shown. 

146. Oral Exercise. Supply the correct 
form of show in the blanks. 1. We've 


him the way. 2. He's happy. That's 

by the way he looks. 3. He's often me 

his collection of minerals. 4. Two-fourths 

equals one-half. That's easily . 5. The 

director has kindly the visitors around 

the building. 

147. Sing. The principal parts of sing are 
sing, sang, sung. We are not allowed by the 
best usage to say he sung, though this is not a 
serious mistake. But " have sang " is distinctly 
a vulgarism. 

148. Sink. The principal parts of sink are 
sink, sank, sunk. " Have sank " for have sunk 
is a vulgarism. " He sunk "' is not a serious 
error, though " he sank " is much the preferable 

149. Spring. The principal parts of spring 
are spring, sprang, sprung. " He sprung " is not 
used by the best speakers. "Have sprang" 
for have sprung is as bad as " have sank " and 
"have sang." 

150. Oral Exercise. Insert sung. 1. 

They've always in the choir. 2. The 

songs that were to us in our childhood will 

never be forgotten. 3. The nightingale said, 


" I have many songs, but never a song so 

gay." 4. The poet has his swan-song. 

5. "And when they had a hj'mn, they 

went out." 

Insert sunk. 1. He has thousands in 

the enterprise. 2. Millions of gold lie in 

the tropic seas. 3. The child was rescued after it 

had for the second time. 4. Artesian 

wells are often a thousand feet. 5. The 

dog was not shot before it had its teeth 

into the child. 

Insert sprung. 1. The door had to 

upon my hand. 2. It was easy to see whence 

this mistake had . 3. Great men have 

from obscure families. 4. The bottom of the 

boat was considerably . 5. We found that 

the fox had the trap. 

151. Steal. The principal parts of steal are 
steal, stole, stolen. " Have stole," for have stolen, 
is a vulgarism. 

152. Swim. The principal parts of swim are 
swim, swam, swum. " Have swam" for have 
swum is a vulgarism. 

153. Swing. For the past of swing we say 
swung. And of course the form with have, has, 
had, is also swung. 


154. Oral Exercise. Insert swung. 1. 

The boat clear of the wharf. 2. The 

sailor-boy out to reach it. 3. The boom 

round and knocked him into the water. 

4. His shipmates him a line. 5. The boy 

himself up by the line. 

155. Take. The principal parts of take are 
take, took, taken. " Have took " is a vulgarism 
for have taken. 

156. Take almost always requires an object. 
In the expression " He took cold," cold must be 
regarded as an object, first meaning coldness 
(because people once had the mistaken notion 
that it is always cold air which produces colds), 
and then meaning a cold. But the expression 
" He took sick " is a vulgarism. Sick is not a 
disease to be taken. The correct expression is 
" He was taken sick." 

157. Oral Exercise. Insert the correct 

form of take. 1. I fear I've cold. 

2. If he hadn't gone, he wouldn't have 

cold. 3. People have often cold by sitting 

in hot, foul air. 4. Arctic travelers have rarely 

cold in the dry, pure air of the coldest 

regions. 5. Where's my watch, son ? I be- 
lieve you've it. 


158. Teach. The principal parts of teach are 
teach, taught, taught. " Teached " is a vulgarism. 

159. Throw. The principal parts of throw 
are throw, threw, throivn. "Throwed" is a vul- 
garism for threw and thrown. 

160. Oral Exercise. Insert threw or 
thrown, according to need. 1. The little wrestler 

the big one. 2. Orlando Charles. 

3. Who is it that stones at the chickens ? 

4. They the door open wide, and the sun 

a flood of light in. 5. The rider was 

badly . 6. The horse was too. 

7. Look ! he's ! 8. You that ball 

too high. 9. A shawl was over her 

shoulders. 10. The Indian down a fine 


161. "Wring. The parts of wring are wring, 
wrung, wrung. It is right to say " The cook 
rang the dinner bell," but it would be wrong to 
say " The cook wrang the chicken's neck." 

162. Write. The principal parts of write are 
write, wrote, written. " Have wrote " is a vul- 
garism for "have written." 

163. Written Exercise. Insert the cor- 
rect form of write. 1. "What I have I 


have ." 2. 

tion yet? 3. I 
4. My brother's 
word lasts. 

Have you 
haven't — 

your composi- 

— a word of mine, 
most of his. 5. The 

164. Summary of the forty verbs. The prin- 
cipal parts of the forty verbs may be summed 
up as follows : 



Form after 
have, etc. 


awoke or awaked 





















































Form after 
have, etc. 







lie (to recline) 

































































165. The personal pronouns. The following 
words are called personal pronouns : Z, you, he, 
it, she, we, they ; me, him, her, us, them. 

166. The subject forms. The five forms I, he, 
she, we, they, may be called the subject forms of 
the personal pronoun. These words may be 
used as subjects, but not as objects. You and 
it may be used either as subjects or as objects. 1 

167. Oral Exercise. Fill the blanks with 
7, he, she, we, they in turn, making five 

sentences for every blank. 1. John and 

are going. 2. John and were present. 

3. John and are friends. 4. John and 

are likely to go. 

168. Oral Exercise. Fill the blanks with 
you, he, she, they, in turn, making four sentences 
for each blank. 1. and I are going. 

1 Subject is defined in 14 ; object in 120. 


2. and I were going. 3. and I 

are friends. 4. and I are likely to go. 

169. The subject forms after "is." The verb 
to be and its forms is, was, etc. cannot take an 
object, because no action is expressed. In the 
sentence " It is John," nothing happens to 
John. After the verb to be the subject forms 
of the personal pronoun are used, as in It is I, 
it is he, it is she, it is we, it is they. 

170. In answer to the question " Who is it?" 
we are permitted to say " It's me," instead of 
"It is I." But it is just as simple to answer 
merely the word "I." Such questions as 
"Was it I that you wanted?" are very com- 
mon among correct speakers, and are not pre- 
tentious. But even if we allow ourselves to 
say "It's me," we must not allow ourselves to 
say "it's him," "it's her," "it's them." These 
are vulgarisms. 

171. Oral Exercise. Fill the blanks with 

1. he, she, we, they, making five sentences for 
each blank. 1. Was it that you called? 

2. I said it was that the teacher spoke to. 

3. I'm afraid it's who may have to suffer. 

4. Perhaps it's that he wants. 


172. The object forms. Like the subject 
forms, the object forms of the personal pronoun 
are five in number : me, him, her, us, them. You 
and it are used as objects, but also as subjects. 
Vulgar usage often employs object forms as 
subjects (" John and me are going"), and sub- 
ject forms as objects (" They invited John 
and I"). These mistakes usually occur when 
more than one person is mentioned. 

Note that in " May I ? " the word lis a sub- 
ject, while in " Let me," the word me is an 

173. Oral Exercise. (A) Use the correct 
form, me or I, in the blanks. 1. They invited 

John and . 2. May Sophronia and 

sit together? 3. May Parker and get a 

pail of water ? 4. Please let Sophronia and 

sit together. 5. Can John and cross 

the bridge safely? 6. She scolded him and 

. 7. They want them and to come. 

8. They made her and recite. 9. She 

and had to recite. 10. They and 

will leave soon. 11. Let us go, you and me. 
Let's you and go. 

(i?) Use the correct pronoun, she or her, in 
the blanks. 1. It's she is calling. She 


wants . 2. and I were the first ones 

to school. 3. and me and Sophronia he 

asked to go. 4. I asked Sophronia if it were 

, and she said no. The teacher thought 

it was . 5. Father brought and me 

in the sleigh. 6. and Kate were always 

having a good time. 7. Her elder sister and 

are to spend Christmas in Lynn. 8. Kate 

and are both invited. 9. They and 

were all promoted with honor. 10. Her 

brothers and are learning rapidly to 

speak well. 

174. Oral Exercise. Insert we or us in 
the blanks according to your best judgment. 

1. Is it that you invited? 2. Did you 

see both them and that same evening ? 

3. boys are going fishing. 4. Father 

took boys a-fishing. 5. Sister wanted to 

go ; so father took boys and her. 6. 

boys had to bait our sister's hook. 7. She 

caught her hook in a tree, and father sent 

boys up after it. 8. There is a book called 

" Girls." 9. There is another book called 

" Two." 10. The witches asked, " When 

shall three meet again?" 11. One ob- 
ject form of the personal pronoun is " ." 


12. I hope that they two will ask five to 

go. 13. It was whom you saw. 14. They 

said it was , but it wasn't. It was they 

themselves. 15. They meant , but we 

couldn't admit that it was they meant. 

175. Object forms after prepositions. Certain 
verbs cannot take an object except by the help 
of what are called prepositions, little words like 
at, by, from, to, with. You cannot look a house, 
but you can look at a house. A preposition 
takes after it the object forms of the pronoun, 
no matter whether a verb is near or not. Thus 
we say : look at him, see us, stand by her, sit 
by him, eat with them, a boy with Mm, a man 
near them. 

176. Oral Exercise. Insert an object form 
of the pronoun in each blank. 1. The teacher 

called on him and . 2. The lecture was 

for them and also. 3. The rain fell on 

me and . 4. I waited for her and . 

5. We spoke with Parker and . 

177. Object forms with "like." Object forms 
are used in such sentences as " His son acts like 


178. Oral Exercise. Supply object forms 
of pronouns in the blanks. 1. Don't do like 

. 2. If her daughter acts like , she 

will be a noble girl. 3. I can't do that like . 

4. I can't run like . 5. My brother writes 

like . 6. Our brothers all write like . 

179. Literary English of the present time 
does not employ like in such sentences as "Act 
like they do." It insists on one of two forms, 
"Act as they do," or else "Act like them." 

The wrong use of like is never heard from 
the lips of an educated New Englander, even 
in the most informal conversation. 1 The wrong 
use of like is, however, so common in the South, 
even among well-educated persons, that a 
grammarian must hesitate to call it a vulgar- 
ism. It is rather a provincialism, an expression 
used chiefly in one section of the country. But 
the most careful southern speakers avoid the 
use of like for as, and every boy and girl, north- 
ern or southern, ought to follow the example of 
the most careful speakers in this matter. 

Use only object forms of the pronoun after 


1 Like for as is more frequent in England than in New 


180. We have now completed our survey of 
the most common mistakes in grammar, and of 
their correct equivalents. If you have mastered 
the subject thus far, further progress in gram- 
matical correctness will be easy. You have 
found some of the exercises tedious. But if 
you have mastered them, you have acquired 
more power than you may think. You have ac- 
quired a habit of trying to speak correctly ; and 
what now seems full of troublesome duty will 
soon come to be like a second nature. 

Our plan is to change the character of our 
study somewhat at this point. You are to let 
what you have learned take root in your mind, 
while you give your attention to a quite differ- 
ent phase of grammar. Make it a habit to 
speak correctly every day, according to your 
best knowledge, while you proceed to study the 
sente?ice as a whole. Book Two treats of the 
sentence as a whole. 




181. In grammar, the word that is perhaps 
more frequently used than any other is the 
word sentence. 

Any definition of this word which can be 
given at the beginning of our study will have 
to be enlarged as we learn more of the subject. 
But we may at least say at the start (what 
you probably know already) that A sentence 
is a completely worded statement, inquiry, or 
command ; and that when written it begins 
with a capital letter and ends either with a 
period (.), a question mark (?), or an exclama- 
tion point (!). 

Sentences, you see at once, are the stuff of 
which language is formed, for nearly every- 
thing that can be said is either a statement, 
an inquiry, or a command. 

182. Most sentences are either statements or 
combinations of statements ; therefore we must 

G 81 


make ourselves familiar with the meaning of 
the word statement. Then, because the state- 
ment form of sentence is written with a capital 
and a period, we may properly ask whether 
every statement has the right to a capital and 
period, or whether only some statements have, 
and, if so, which. These subjects will be our 
study in the next three chapters. 

183. When we have learned what statements 
are, and which ones can stand alone as sen- 
tences, we shall proceed to ask how statements 
are made up within themselves ; and shall then 
ask the same thing about inquiries and com- 

184. You have probably learned already 
something of how sentences are made up 
within themselves. You are well aware that 
every sentence says something about something. 
The part of the sentence which does the say- 
ing is called the predicate. The part naming 
that of which the predicate is said is called 
the subject. 

185. Every sentence may, therefore, be di- 
vided into two parts. In a sentence like 


"Birds fly," Birds is the subject, fly the predi- 
cate. 1 

In " Birds are flying," Birds is the subject 
and are flying the predicate. 

In " Birds are animals," the predicate is are 
animals; 2 while in " Birds catch insects," the 
predicate is catch insects. 

In " Cannibal birds kill other birds," Can- 
nibal birds is the subject, kill other birds the 

We are now ready to ask ourselves what a 
statement is, and what it is not. 

1 Here the predicate consists of the verb fly. 

2 Here the predicate consists of the verb are and the noun 



186. A nod of the head may convey a thought; 
a laugh or cry may express a feeling. But 
neither nod nor laugh nor cry is a statement. 
A word may carry much meaning, for instance 
the word blackbird ; yet a word is not a state- 
ment. A word may even imply an act, for in- 
stance the word flying, but still the word is not 
a statement. You may join the two words fly- 
ing and blackbird, naming a "flying blackbird," 
but the two words are not a statement. Flying 
blackbird is called a phrase. A phrase is a group 
of words conveying an idea, but not making a 

Once more, a word may almost make a state- 
ment and yet just miss it. We say that a verb 
states or asserts (13) ; yet in strictness there is 
no statement until a subject is placed with 
the verb. The verb flies is not a statement ; 
but " Time flies " is one. The verb is flying 



makes no statement ; but " Time is flying " 
makes one. 

187. With such a combination of words as 
" Time flies " we are back to the important 
principle that a sentence must have a subject 
and a predicate. This is particularly true of 
written language, because here the reader has 
nothing to guide him except the words which 
actually appear on the paper. Suppose you 
wished to know how some given person looked. 
In a conversation you might ask a friend to 
describe the person, and if your friend gave no 
other answer than to say " Black hair, blue eyes, 
straight nose, etc.," you would nevertheless get 
his thought well enough. Yet " black hair " is 
no statement ; it is only a phrase. If on the 
other hand your friend were writing the descrip- 
tion, he would take pains to state, declare, assert 
that the person had black hair ; and he would 
mention the person in every sentence, if only 
by the word He. 

188. Oral Exekcise. Which of the follow- 
ing groups of words are statements, and which 
are not ? 

1. Boys like heroes. 2. The liking of boys 


for heroes. 3. Gold for their enemies. 4. The 
Romans were weighing out gold for their ene- 
mies. 5. The hero Camillus. 6. The sword 
of Camillus. 7. The hero Camillus threw his 
sword into the scales. 8. In the pass of Ther- 
mopylae. 9. The brave Miltiades perished in 
the pass. 10. The laurels of Miltiades. 11. 
The laurels of Miltiades would not let Themis- 
tocles sleep. 12. As quiet as a mouse. 13. 
As mad as a hatter. 14. Alice attended a mad 
tea-party. 15. To leave one in the lurch. 16. 
Thrift is good revenue. 17. In the end, 
things will mend. 18. Not worth a brass 
farthing. 19. Under the rose. 20. I tell you 
under the rose. 21. The swaying branches. 
22. The branches are swaying. 23. The sway- 
ing branches cast flickering shadows. 24. A 
sleeping lion. 25. A lion is sleeping. 26. We 
let a sleeping lion lie. 27. The guard being 
asleep. 28. The guard was asleep. 29. He 
succeeded in passing the gate, the guard being 

189. Oral Exercise. Following are some 
extracts from papers written by boys and girls. 
Pick out the groups of words which make 
statements, and those which do not. 


1. His manner is pleasant, modest, and quiet. 
A robust figure and a frank expression. 2. A 
curious-looking face, with high forehead and 
a broad nose. His chin is small. 3. The 
mask of St. Francis has an intelligent face, with 
long cheeks and a broad forehead. A delicate 
mouth, and its lips are parted. 4. His head 
is very large and round like a ball. Large ej^es, 
aquiline nose, and rather thick lips. 5. The 
young person I will describe is dark. Dark 
eyelashes and eyebrows. Very dark, laughing 
eyes and a shapely nose. 6. German musi- 
cian. A round face with high forehead, large 
eyes, heavy eyebrows. Short, coarse nose. 
7. A person with curling hair, long face, large 
forehead, clear blue eyes with a mischievous 
look in them. The expression of the face 
always bright. 8. It is a most beautiful spot. 
Just back of our tent is a dense wood. Very 
little underbrush, but flowers of all kinds in 
profusion. 9. In this chest there were books 
and toys and dolls. All mixed up together. 

190. Oral Exercise. You have picked 
out each phrase in the preceding exercise. 
Now take each phrase and make a statement 
out of it in any way that seems best. 



191. Oral Exercise. Study the portrait 
carefully. Make an oral statement about the 
general look of the face, as whether it is grave 
and dignified, or jolly and lively. Make a 

statement about the eyes. Make one about 
the nose. Make one about the mouth. Make 
one about the chin. Make one about the hair. 
Make one about the neck. How many state- 
ments will there be in all ? Begin each state- 


ment with the name of the feature you are 
speaking about. 

192. Written Exercise. Write seven 
statements about the face, according to the 
directions in the preceding exercise. Begin 
each statement with a capital and end it with 
a period. Do not begin any statement with 
"and." Write one statement after another, 
filling up every line you write on, except per- 
haps the last. Begin the first statement an 
inch farther to the right than the others. 

193. It hardly needs to be said that a phrase 
should never be punctuated as if it were a sen- 
tence, that is, be begun with a capital and 
ended with a period. Yet when a phrase 
comes at the end of a sentence, it is easy to 
forget that it is a part of that sentence. 
Often when a beginner has written a state- 
ment and placed a period, he finds that he 
wishes to add a few words. Of course he 
ought to erase the period with his knife, and 
begin the phrase with a small letter. If he 
forgets to do so, his statement reads like this : 
" She has beautiful golden hair. And blue 


194. Oral Exercise. Read aloud the fol- 
lowing sentences until you can give them with 
good expression. Then point out the phrases 
which a beginner might be careless enough 
to punctuate as sentences. (The beginners 
Avho wrote them did make that mistake, but 
the pointing has been changed to the correct 

1. The difference between the faces is great, the first 
being more thoughtful than the second. 2. The Ger- 
man's face is a very intelligent one, the forehead being 
high and full. 3. This girl has dark hair and eyes, in 
general a brunette's complexion. 4. The lips of St. 
Francis are parted a little, the upper lip looking short 
and curved. 5. My knife is a very old and good one, the 
letters I. X. L. being engraved on the blade. 6. Lincoln 
received but little education, going to school only six 
months in his life. 7. Lincoln was a poorly dressed boy, 
his short trousers showing his red ankles. 8. Lincoln 
wrote on a wooden shovel, I think it was, the shovel be- 
ing scraped white. 9. Abraham Lincoln was a tall 
youth, six feet four inches high. 10. Once when Presi- 
dent Lincoln visited a navy-yard he picked up an axe by 
the tip of the helve and held it out straight, by only his 
thumb and finger. 11. Washington once saved a child 
from drowning, jumping into a very swift stream to save 
it. 12. I got along very well in this dress, the fur cap 
coming clear down over my ears. 

195. Written Exercise. Read aloud the 
following statements until you can give them 


smoothly and intelligently. Then copy them, 
inserting the correct punctuation at the places 
indicated by the caret (a) ; each caret stands 
before a phrase. 

Begin the first sentence an inch farther to the 
right than the others. Fill up the lines of the 
paper neatly. 


A detective guesses shrewdly because he observes 
closely A noting a thousand little facts. A teacher can 
often tell much about the character of a pupil by his 
handwriting A pupil and teacher being as yet unac- 
quainted. Employers trust their own eyes more than 
they trust letters of recommendation A deciding quickly 
on the merits of the applicant for a position. One boy 
says to him, " Yes, sir/' instead of " Yes " A showing a 
respectful manner of speech. That boy's finger-nails will 
probably be clean A revealing a habit of personal neat- 
ness. His forefinger will be white rather than yellow a 
indicating the boy's innocence of tobacco. The shrewd 
employer notes all these facts A counting them to the 
boy's credit. The lad gets the coveted place imme- 
diately A in spite of some other fellow's being recom- 
mended for it. 

196. Written Exercise. Study the picture 
called The Cabin Boy's First Voyage. Then 
copy the statements given below, taking pains 
not to omit the commas, and finish each phrase 
according to' what you see in the picture. 


Place a period at the end of each completed 
seatence. Read your statements aloud. 


The French painter Ilaquette has a picture of the de- 
parture of a cabin boy on his first voyage. The scene is 


a low shore, with cliffs in . The cabin boy is saying 

good-bye to his baby brother, putting . The child is 

lifted up to him by an older sister, a pretty girl with . 

The sun is low, its last glory shining around . From 

the edge of the water a sailor is calling to the boy, 

beckoning . Another sailor pushes a boat into the 

water, exerting . Out at sea appears a ship, the 

future . 



197. When we talk, we often talk a series of 
statements, and in order to understand any one 
of these the hearer must understand some of 
the others. There will be several statements 
about one thing, and in a sense they will all 
be somewhat dependent on each other for their 

It is just so with the sentences of a written 
composition. The writer feels that his state- 
ments are all about one thing, and are closely 
related to each other in meaning. This is quite 
as it should be, for if they were not closely re- 
lated in meaning, there Avoukl be no excuse for 
writing them. But the beginner, fearing that 
his statements will seem unrelated and discon- 
nected if he uses periods and capitals, runs them 
all together. If he employs any mark of punc- 
tuation, it is only the comma. , 



The beginner writes like this : 

"My dog is a spaniel his name is Nep, that stands for 
Neptune Neptune was the sea-god, we call the dog Nep 
because he is so fond of the water, he likes to be in it all 
the time, once he got caught in the weeds and was nearly 

198. This breathless stream of statements 
sounds childish, does it not? If we are to 
choose a name for this bad habit of running 
statements together without periods and capi- 
tals, we may call it The Child's Fault in Punc- 

199. The group of remarks about the spaniel 
ought to be pointed thus : 

" My dog is a spaniel. His name is Nep. That stands 
for Neptune. Neptune was the sea-god. We call the dog 
Nep because he is so fond of the water. He likes to be 
in it all the time. Once he got caught in the weeds and 
was nearly drowned." 

These sentences are short and jerky, but they 
are true sentences, and can be read without 
making the reader gasp for breath. 

200. Below are given some parts of school 
compositions in which the Child's Fault in 
Punctuation occurs. The first column gives the 
faulty pointing, the second the correct. 


Wrong pointing of indepen- 
dent statements 

1. No one knew Ulysses 
but his dog Argus, presently 
he made himself known to 

2. I started out on a 
camping trip with a friend 
of mine, we had a spring 
buggy and a pair of good 

3. On our first day out 
we did not stop until dark, 
then we camped near a 
farmer's house for supper 
we bought a quart of milk 
from there and had it with 
our bread and cold beans. 

4. We were out hunting, 
all of a sudden a rabbit 
darted out from behind a 
bush, we all yelled at once. 

5. We fully expect to 
see you this summer, you 
surely will not disappoint 
us this year, you know you 
did last year. 

6. Oh, Polly, I Went last 
evening with mamma to the 
opera, it was the Bohemian 
Girl, I wish you had been 
with us, it was fine. 

Correct pointing of indepen- 
dent statements 

1. No one knew Ulysses 
but his dog Argus. Pres- 
ently he made himself 
known to Telemachus. 

2. I started out on a 
camping trip with a friend 
of mine. We had a spring 
buggy and a pair of good 

3. On our first day out 
we did not stop until dark. 
Then we camped near a 
farmer's house. For supper 
we bought a quart of milk 
from there and had it with 
our bread and cold beans. 

4. We were out hunting. 
All of a sudden a rabbit 
darted out from behind a 
bush. We all yelled at once. 

5. We fully expect to 
see you this summer. You 
surely will not disappoint 
us this year. You know 
you did last year. 

6. Oh, Polly, I went last 
evening with mamma to 
the opera. It was the Bo- 
hemian Girl. I wish you 
had been with us. It was 
fine ! 


7. A walking tour should 
be taken by yourself, if you 
go in pairs, it is not a walk- 
ing tour but a picnic, you 
want to be free to go where 
you please. 

8. It isn't as nice up 
here now as it is in sum- 
mer, there are only a few 
ducks around, most of the 
ducks have gone south, we 
have partridge almost every 
day, Reddy brought three 
partridges to-day, he is just 
sobering up. 

9. Just after dark I heard 
a splash, my cousin was in 
the icy water, he had walked 
straight off the bank in the 
dark. We soon pulled him 
out, he was more scared 
than hurt. 

10. That night we found 
an old stage-house that was 
habitable, we stayed there 
for several days, there was 
plenty of fuel and it was not 
far to a very fine old spring. 

11. " Phil Farrington " 
was another book I rather 
enjoyed, it told of a boy 
who was found by a hunter 
in Missouri after an ex- 

7. A walking tour should 
be taken by yourself. If 
you go in pairs it is not a 
walking tour but a picnic. 
You want to be free to go 
where you please. 

8. It isn't as nice up 
here now as it is in sum- 
mer. There are only a few 
ducks around. Most of the 
ducks have gone south. We 
have partridge almost every 
day. Reddy brought three 
partridges to-day. He is 
just sobering up. 

9. Just after dark I heard 
a splash. My cousin was 
in the icy water. He had 
walked straight off the bank 
in the dark. We soon 
pulled him out. He was 
more scared than hurt. 

10. That night we found 
an old stage-house that was 
habitable. We stayed there 
for several days. There was 
plenty of fuel, and it was not 
far to a very fine old spring. 

11. " Phil Farrington " 
was another book I rather 
enjoyed. It told of a boy 
who w T as found by a hunter 
in Missouri after an ex- 


plosion of a steamboat on 
the upper Mississippi, he 
lost his parents, or rather 
they lost him, he managed 
to get ashore and was found 
by the hunter as I tell you, 
as he grows older he wants 
to find his parents, he starts 
out and finds his father a 
drunkard in St. Louis, but 
his mother is in France. 

plosion on a steamboat on 
the upper Mississippi. He 
lost his parents, or rather 
they lost him. He managed 
to get ashore and was found 
by the hunter as I tell you. 
As he grows older he wants 
to find his parents. He 
starts out and finds his 
father a drunkard in St. 
Louis, but his mother is in 

201. Oral Exercise. Read aloud the ex- 
tracts given in section 200. Read the second 
column first, taking pains to let the voice fall 
at each period. Pause a bit after each period, 
to show that the statement you have just read 
is independent, can stand alone. Then read 
aloud the first column, letting the voice fall 
wherever there ought to have been a period. 
Say " period " at every such place. 

202. Oral Exercise. Study the following 
piece silently until you are sure whether there 
ought to be a period followed by a capital, 
or a comma followed by a small letter, at each 
place marked by a vertical line (|). Then read 
the piece aloud, letting the voice fall at the 
end of each complete statement. 



In a letter to a friend, in March, 1864, Lincoln wrote 
as follows of Grant : " I hardly know what to think of 
him altogether | lie is the quietest little fellow you ever 
knew | why, he makes the least fuss of any man you ever 
knew | I believe two or three times he has been in this 
room a minute or so before I knew he was here | it's about 
so all around | the only evidence you have that he's in 
any place is that he makes things go | wherever he is, 
tilings move | Grant is the first general I've had | he's a 
general | I'll tell you what I mean | you know how it's 
been with all the rest ..." They all wanted me to be 
general | now, it isn't so with Grant | he hasn't told me 
what his plans are | I don't know, and I don't want 
to know | I am glad to find a man who can go ahead 
without me." 

203. Oral Exercise. Study and read the 
following piece as you did that of section 202. 


1. A well-known poet tells a story of the first time he 
ran away from home | he had been deeply offended by 
something done in the household, and he decided to quit 
forever a place where he was so little appreciated. 

2. So he took a last long look at the old place — looked 
at the barn, the pump, the chickens, the pig, the door-step, 
the path to the back gate | every glance was a farewell | 
he wandered out into the wide, wide world | in other 
Words, he went down the road | he walked until he came 
to a great and dark forest | there had been days when it 
was merely Hanson's grove, and in easy walking dis- 
tance from his home j on this day it was weary leagues 


away, and he entered its sad shade with the feeling that 
he had given up all joy. 

3. Hours went by | happier folk ate supper in their 
homes | the wanderer brooded alone, and saw the black 
night come along like a fierce dragon and swallow 
everything | he heard the night silence | he had immeas- 
urable thoughts, and had the painful delight of feeling 
himself grow old. 

4. But, as the world lay in silence, better feelings came 
to him | he felt that he had been selfish in thinking only 
of his grievance | how would they be able to live without 
him at home ? Was it not his duty to step across the 
awful gulf that yawned between him and those he had 
once loved, and forgive them, and return to comfort 
them ? With a generosity that almost staggered him, 
he left the gloom of the forest and returned along the 
wild paths of the world to the old familiar spot — w T hich 
he had not laid eye upon for three mortal hours ! 

5. He entered the house | his father was reading, his 
mother sewing, his sister at her studies | no one looked 
up | no one spoke j his coming made no sensation | he 
had returned from the wilderness and no one was inter- 
ested | his heart swelled to bursting with injured vanity | 
just at the moment when tears appeared to be a necessity, 
the fat Maltese entered the room, and with more compas- 
sion than her betters came and rubbed her length against 
the boy's bare legs : 

6. He heaved a sigh — such a sigh as wayfarers know 
— and said, in a solemn tone : 

" I see you have the same old gray cat! " 

— The Youth's Companion, adapted. 

204. Written Exercise. Copy the piece 
headed Lincoln's Opinion of Grant, inserting 



periods and capitals wherever they seem needed 
to mark the end of one statement and the be- 
ginning of another. 

205. Until a student has learned to read his 
own work aloud intelligently, letting his voice 
fall at the end of each statement that ought to 
end with a period, he will be likely to make the 
Child's Error whenever he writes. 

He will be particularly in danger of not stop- 
ping before certain words, for example He and 
It. Let us seek the reason for this. 

206. If you were to ask your teacher to say 
in a single word what kind of statement may be 
written as a sentence, the answer would prob- 
ably be the word independent. It is usual and 
correct to say that only independent statements 
may stand as sentences. Yet your instructor 
would be obliged to tell you that it is not very 
easy to define an independent statement. Ex- 
amine two sentences: 

My dog is a spaniel. He is named Neptune. 

They seem to be quite independent of each 
other. But the sentence 

He is named Neptune 


is not complete in meaning. He might mean 
a man, a dog, or an elephant. Yet " He is 
named Neptune " is a sentence, for it has a sub- 
ject and predicate, and before the subject there 
is no connective word which could make it 
seem only a part of a sentence. If it read 
"Although he is named Neptune," it would be 
only a part. 

207. We may call " He is named Neptune " 
a statement grammatically independent of all 
others, though it is somewhat dependent for its 
meaning on a preceding sentence. It is quite 
clear that a statement which is grammatically 
independent has a grammatical right to begin 
with a capital and end with a period. If a man 
should approach you and say merely : 

"It fell/' 

you would doubtless be justified in thinking 
him a lunatic ; but his statement would be a 
sentence; it would have a right to its capital 
and period, though nobody on earth understood 
what it meant. 

208. When the subject of a statement is an 
independent name, like The man, or John, or 
Courage, and this name begins the statement, 


the beginner is quick to see that he should 
capitalize the sentence. When the subject de- 
pends for its meaning on what precedes, as in 
the case of He, the beginner hesitates to capi- 
talize. But any statement that begins with the 
subject He, They, It, She, This, These, or Those, 
has a right to stand as a sentence. 

209. Written Exercise. Copy the follow- 
ing sentences, and finish each incomplete one as 
you proceed. Let the second sentence of each 
pair explain the first. The closer you can make 
the relation between the two sentences, the 

1. Washington was a great general. He . 

2. Victoria was empress as well as queen. She . 

3. Grant and Lee were opponents. They . 

4. Every gun has a " sight." This . 

5. My book has two pieces of pasteboard covered with 
cloth. These . 

6. I have a wheel that I like. It . 

7. We enjoyed the concert. It . 

8. Please let me have some sweeter apples. These 

9. I can't solve this problem. I . 

10. I can't accept your kind invitation. I . 

11. We sold our dog. He . 

12. Look out for the dog. He . 


210. Written Exercise. Write several 
sentences about the picture. Begin some with 
such words as The sailor boy, and others with 


such words as He. Head your paper : Home 
after the First Voyage. 

211. Such words as One, Another, etc., may 
be used to begin sentences. Like He, these 
words depend for their meaning on what has 
preceded them, but they can begin a grammati- 
cally independent statement. 


212. Wkitten Exercise. Study the pic- 
ture called Circe and the Companions of 
Ulysses. You remember that Circe was the 
witch who turned the companions of Ulysses 
into swine. The story is found in the poet 
Homer. It is an old Greek fable that warns 
men against acting like beasts. Write several 
statements about the swine in the picture, under 


the heading : The Swine in the Picture of 
Circe. Let each sentence begin with one 
of the following expressions: One, Two, A 
third, Another, Still another, Several, Others, 
Most, All 

213. We have seen that a statement begin- 
ning with the subject He, or One, or a similar 


word, is grammatically independent and may 
stand as a sentence. But statements frequently 
begin with connective expressions, like but, 
and, although, here, there, wherefore, so. Are 
such statements also grammatically indepen- 
dent? Does the connective interfere with gram- 
matical independence? Sometimes it does, and 
sometimes it does not, as we shall now see. 

214. Some connectives, like Nevertheless and 
Moreover, always give the impression of a new 
start. When we say Nevertheless, we are well 
aware that we are referring back as well as 
starting ahead, but we feel that the statement 
we are about to make is of equal importance 
with the preceding. 

"It was raining pitchforks. Nevertheless we deter- 
mined to start out." 

In such a pair of sentences both state- 
ments are strong ; neither is weaker than the 
other. The rain will not stop just because the 
people start out, and the people start out just 
the same. The statements are coordinate, or 
of equal rank, in spite of the fact that to 
understand the second you must know the 
first. But if you say : 

"Although it was raining pitchforks, we started out," 


you treat the rain as distinctly less important 
than the start. A statement beginning" with 
although is always subordinate, and is written 
as a mere part of a sentence. 

215. Usually the word but shows so close 
a relation that the two statements are joined 
in one sentence. But may, however, begin 
a new sentence, for emphasis. Like But, 
the following expressions show a contrast, and 
like Nevertheless they usually begin sentences : 
Still, At the same time, In spite of that, Yet, On 
the contrary, On the other hand. 

216. Written Exercise. Copy the fol- 
lowing sentences, completing the unfinished 
ones according to your best judgment. Read 
your work aloud, and say " Period, Capital," 
whenever there is a period followed by a 


In the later days of ancient Rome it was common for 
gladiators to fight to the death in the arena. It was a 
horrible performance. Nevertheless the brutal Romans 
liked to see it. On the other hand, the spirit of Christi- 
anity was opposed to it. 

At last a monk named Telemachus came from the 
desert. In spite of the danger he sprang into the arena 
and stepped between the gladiators, crying, " In the name 


of Christ Jesus, forbear ! " The spectators stoned him to 
death. His act, however, stopped gladiatorial fights in 

The picture shows St. Telemachus in the arena. He 

P ~ 





, * TjB 

/ X 



does not fear the gladiators. On the contrary 


brutal fellow with a trident is about to strike a death 

blow. Yet . He could kill the frail old man with a 

stroke of his fist. Still . The face of St. Telemachus 

shows that he understands the value of human life, and 


that man is not a beast. On the other hand 


victor might even now shake off the monk's light grasp 
and deal the fallen enemy a death blow. Yet . 

217. There is one connective which intro- 
duces its statement so closely that beginners 


are usually afraid to put a period before it. 
This is the word So, meaning Therefore. It 
is perfectly correct to capitalize a ^-state- 
ment. 1 In short sentences like " It began to 
rain, so we stopped playing," it is customary 

1 But the connective so that never begins a sentence. 


to permit the comma before so, but it would 
be grammatically correct to write, " It began 
to rain. So we stopped playing." The period 
is regularly preferred when the statements 
are long. 

218. Written Exercise. Copy the fol- 
lowing sentences, and finish the incomplete 
ones according tj your best judgment. 


In this picture, the man who is standing looks proud 

and triumphant. So he is probably . He wears a 

uniform, with heavy, braided shoulder-straps. So . 

On his coat is pinned an iron cross. The iron cross is 
not an American decoration. So . It is not an Eng- 
lish decoration. So . Nor is it French. So . 

The iron cross is a German badge. So probably . 

The man in the chair has sunk down with a look of 

helpless anger and perplexity. So . He is not 

dressed in uniform, but in civil clothes. So . We 

remember that Germany conquered France in 1871, and 
that Thiers was the French minister who arranged the 

terms of peace. So we . Also we remember that 

the German chancellor who imposed very severe terms of 
peace upon Thiers was Prince Bismarck. So we . 

219. The word and always introduces a coor- 
dinate statement, and may occasionally appear 
with a capital. In general it is better to begin 


with one of the following, which mean about 
the same as and: Also, In the next place, More- 
over, Furthermore, Besides, Likeivise. 

220. Written Exercise. Copy the follow- 
ing sentences, and complete the unfinished ones 
according to your best judgment. 


In this picture by Landseer a beautiful dog rests his 
head on his master's coffin and presses his body against 

the rude box in piteous grief. The dog is a collie, or 

shepherd dog. Therefore, probably, his master . 

Moreover we infer this from the crook and horn which 


lie upon the floor. In the next place we note a Scotch 
plaid thrown over the coffin, beneath the pall. Besides, 
a Scotch cap lies beside the crook. Consequently we 

infer that . Likewise we see a clasped Bible and a 

pair of spectacles lying on the bench. Therefore the 

master . Finally, we note that there is no one in 

the room except the dog, and are not surprised to learn 
that Landseer called his picture The Highland Shepherd's 
Chief Mourner. 

221. Certain words and phrases may form 
independent beginnings to show whether the 
writer thinks his statement positively true, or 
probably true, or possibly true. These are : 
Certainly, Surely, Doubtless, Indeed, Perhaps, 
Possibly, Probably, Anyhow, Anyivay, In all prob- 
ability, At least, At all events, In any case. 

These connectives do not always stand first, 
but they usually refer to the whole statement 
even when they do not begin it. We may say: 

Certainly this is the place, 
or This is certainly the place, 

or This, certainly, is the place, 

or This is the place, certainly. 

Perhaps I should go, 
or I should perhaps go, 

or I should go, perhaps. 

222. Written Exercise. After studying 
the picture, copy the following sentences, com- 
pleting the unfinished ones appropriately. 



In this picture, called On a Furlough, a soldier is 
visiting his family in the old home. Certainly the old 

lady who sits beside him . Her features are much 

like his. Surely the little girl at his left and the little 

boy at his right . In all probability the old man 

smoking a pipe . Probably the woman who is pre- 


paring the meal . The other persons are doubtless 

the soldier's brother and sisters. At all events . 

Everybody is listening intently to the soldier's narrative. 

At least, everybody is listening except . Perhaps 

the soldier is telling . Anyhow, . 

223. Another important independent begin- 
ning is the capitalized word There. It is com- 


mon in such phrases as There is, There's, There 
are, There is no, There's no, There are no, 

224. Here is a picture of a room in the 
Grammar School of Stratford-on-Avon, in 
England. In this room William Shakspere 
undoubtedly studied and recited when a boy. 
It is still used as a schoolroom. It is in 


some respects like an American class room, 
and in some unlike. One does not see our 
individual desks and seats with backs. One 
does not see a globe, a wall blackboard, or a 
flat ceiling. 

225. Written Exercise. Write several 
short sentences concerning the room, head- 


ing your paper : A Room where Shakspere 
studied. Begin each sentence with one of 
the following expressions : There is, There's, 
There are, There is no, There's no, There are no. 

226. Independent beginnings often show 
place. Such beginnings are : Here, There, 
Over there, Above, Below, At the right, Over- 
head, On the floor. 

227. Written Exercise. Write several 
sentences about the Stratford room, beginning 
each with some such expression as : Here, Over- 
head, In the ceiling, On the floor, Beside the 
desks, On the farther side of the room, At the 
right, On the wall at the right, On the farther 
wall, In the chimney, Above the fireplace. Head 
your paper as before : A Room where Shak- 
spere studied. 

228. Independent beginnings may be made 
that show the time of the new statement. This 
is done by words or phrases like Now, Then, 
To-day, Yesterday, To-morrow, Immediately, 
Presently, Heretofore, Hitherto, Once, After- 
wards, After this, Soon, Often, Frequently, 


229. Written Exercise. Write an ac- 
count of how you spent some one day. Head 
it after this fashion : What I did Yesterday, 
or, What I did on Monday. Let each sentence 
be one statement. Begin each with an expres- 
sion showing time, as On awaking, After bath- 
ing and dressing, Next, Then, By half-past 
eight, At nine, During the next period, After this, 
After school, In the evening. 


230. Written Exercise. Think of sev- 
eral single statements concerning your last 
vacation. Let them be statements that you 
can begin with the following words : Once, 
Often, Frequently, Sometimes, Occasionally. 
Write the sentences, and head the paper : 
Happenings of my Vacation. 



231. Almost any short statement standing 
as a sentence can be turned into a mere 
part of a sentence by putting one of certain 
words before it. Take the statement " Guns 
are dangerous." By putting where before it 
you make " Where guns are dangerous," a 
mere piece of a sentence. In the following ex- 
amples, the parts in italics are made into sub- 
ordinate clauses by dependent or subordinate 
beginnings. 1 

1. Where guns are dangerous, they should not 
be used. 

2. Guns should not be used where they are 

3. Wherever guns are dangerous, guns should 
not be used. 

1 The clauses in italics are called subordinate not merely 
because it is the custom to write them as parts of sentences, 
but because they are thought of as less important than the 
main clauses to which they are attached. See 214. 



4. The greatest care should be taken in 
hunting, wherever guns are dangerous. 

5. When guns are dangerous, they should be 
let alone. 

6. Guns should be let alone when they are 

7. Since this gun became dangerous we have 
never touched it. 

8. We have let this old musket alone ever 
since it became dangerous. 

9. Just as the guns were getting hot and dan- 
gerous, the firing ceased. 

10. The firing ceased just as the guns were 
getting hot and dangerous. 

11. While the guns ivere hot and dangerous, 
the gunners rested. 

12. The gunners rested while the guns ivere 
hot and dangerous. 

13. The rifles were still unused, while the 
cannon were hot and dangerous. 

14. While the cannon were hot and dangerous, 
the rifles were still cold. 

15. We left, for rifles are dangerous. 

16. Since the rifles of deer-hunters are danger- 
ous, we kept out of the woods. 

17. We kept out of the pines in November, 
since rifles are dangerous. 


18. Because the rifles were dangerous, we kept 
out of the pines in November. 

19. We kept out of the pines and stayed at 
home, because the rifles were dangerous. 

20. The deer-hunters' rifles are dangerous, 
ivherefore ice keep out of the pines. 

21. Fifty deer-hunters came into the pines, 
whence we presently departed. 

22. The deer-hunters were banging away, so 
that ivefelt uneasy. 

23. We stayed out, lest we should stop a stray 

24. If guns are dangerous, why use them? 

25. Why use guns, if they are dangerous? 

26. Unless a gun is hammerless, it is danger- 

27. A gun is dangerous unless it is hammer- 

28. Provided it is hammerless, a gun is fairly 

29. A gun is fairly safe provided it is hammer- 

30. A well-made gun is fairly safe, provided 
it is hammerless. 

31. Although guns kick, boys like them. 

32. Boys like guns, although guns are dan- 


33. Boys like guns, even if guns are dan- 

34. He carries his gun with raised hammers, 
as if he were a fool. 

35. Even if guns are dangerous, foolish per- 
sons will carry them carelessly. 

36. Notwithstanding he has been warned, he 
will fire that old charge. 

37. He will probably get killed, nohvithstand- 
ing he has been warned. 

38. This gun has been made hammerless in 
order that it may be safe. 

39. In order that it may not scatter, this gun 
has been choke-bored. 

40. Hold your peace till you know which 
man is at fault. 

41. A lie begets a lie, till they come to genera- 

42. Agree, for the law is costly. Agree, for 
fighting is still more costly. 

232. Oral Exercise. — A. Learn and re- 
cite the following connectives that begin sub- 
ordinate clauses, mere parts of sentences : 

Group 1 : where, wherever. 

Group 2 : when, while, since, until, just as, as soon as, as 
long as. 

Group 3 : because, for, as. 


Group 4 : if, unless, provided, provided that. 
Group 5 : although, even if, as if 

B. Use each connective in two sentences. 
Let one sentence put the subordinate clause 
first ; let the other put it last. Give sentences 
of your own, or repeat from memory sentences 
found in the list above. 

233. The word because always begins a sub- 
ordinate clause. The word for may sometimes 
begin a sentence, but not often. 

The word or almost never begins a sentence, 
though it connects clauses of equal importance. 

234. A statement that can stand by itself is 
called a simple or main statement. 

A main statement and a subordinate clause 
together make a complex statement. 

Pick out the main statements from the first 
twenty sentences of 231. 

235. Three dangers beset the beginner in 
punctuating complex statements. 

The greatest danger is that he will put a 
period and then capitalize a subordinate clause. 
(Compare 193.) Note the following sentences. 



Wrong Pointing of Subordi- 
nate Clause 

1. We didn't much mind 
the loss of the beef. Since 
we had a plenty of ham and 
bacon in our supply-box. 

2. Then I came in drip- 
ping, and looking like an 
idiot. However, I managed 
to put up with the situation 
after a fashion. Because 
there were others in the 
same fix. 

3. We stayed in Dover 
that night and were only 
too glad that we did. As 
it began to rain about ten 
and rained all night. 

4. The roof of the hut 
leaked abominably in sev- 
eral places. While the tent 
seemed to be as tight and 
dry as you please. 

5. It was General Grant 
who turned the tide of vic- 
tory in favor of the Union 
army. Although there were 
many other able generals on 
the Union side. 

6. In camping out, it is 
just as well to have a flint 
and steel along. So that if 
the matches get wet you 

Right Pointing of Subordi- 
nate Clause 

1. We didn't much mind 
the loss of the beef, since 
we had a plenty of ham and 
bacon in our supply-box. 

2. Then I came in drip- 
ping, and looking like an 
idiot. However, I managed 
to put up with the situation 
after a fashion, because 
there were others in the 
same fix. 

3. We stayed in Dover 
that night and were only 
too glad that we did, as it 
began to rain about ten 
and rained all night. 

4. The roof of the hut 
leaked abominably in sev- 
eral places, while the tent 
seemed to be as tight and 
dry as you please. 

5. It was General Grant 
who turned the tide of vic- 
tory in favor of the Union 
army, although there were 
many other able generals 
on the Union side. 

6. In camping out, it is 
just as well to have a flint 
and steel along, so that if 
the matches get wet you 


can make a fire with only 
the help of a few dry leaves 
or rags. But we fired some 
dry rags out of a gun and 
set them afire. So that we 
were all right. 

can make a fire with only 
the help of a few dry leaves 
or rags. But we fired some 
dry rags out of a gun and 
set them afire, so that we 
were all right. 

236. When the subordinate clause comes after 
the main clause, it sometimes need not be sep- 
arated by any punctuation. The more subor- 
dinate it is in sense, the less it needs to be 
separated. In some complex sentences you 
hardly feel that there is more than one state- 
ment : 

He goes horseback riding because lie likes it. 
She bnys chocolates whenever she can. 

But when the subordinate clause is really felt 
to be a statement, there must be a comma be- 
fore it. Nearly always the beginner neglects 
the duty of inserting the comma. 

237. Written Exercise. Copy the follow- 
ing sentences, adding appropriate subordinate 
clauses to the main clauses. Read your work 
aloud, saying " Comma " wherever a comma 
precedes a subordinate clause. 




It is clear that the picture before me is that of a 

hospital. It is a children's hospital, for . In the 

foreground a man is sitting beside a cot, while on the 


cot . The man is evidently the child's father, for he 

is looking . I judge that he is a poor man, as . 

But he feels that he will be rich enough if 
the lad has been very sick, because . 

. I think 

I think never- 


theless that he is going to get well, since . He is 

not in a stupor, although . He is getting a whole- 
some nap. At the next cot some one is bending down to 
give another child a kiss, while . 

238. The second danger in writing a com- 
plex statement occurs when the subordinate 
clause stands first. Here we may forget to be- 
gin the subordinate clause with a capital. It is 
just as necessary to capitalize a beginning subor- 
dinate clause as not to capitalize an ending one. 

239. Written Exercise. Copy the fol- 
lowing sentences, and insert appropriate sub- 
ordinate clauses denoting place. Begin with 
Where or Wherever. 

1. In some countries it rains daily. , the vege- 
tation grows rank. 

2. In the West, many districts are arid. , men 
are trying to irrigate. 

3. College men love their college. , they do 
not forget it. 

240. Written Exercise. Insert subordi- 
nate clauses denoting time. Begin with When, 
While, Whenever, Just as, or As soon as. Choose 
the best word. 

1. Brave men never cease to hope. , there is 

2. Grant never gave up. , he kept right on. 


3. Eelief came at last. , we heard the bugles 
of the reinforcements. 

4. Possibly the sky will fall. , we shall catch 

5. Some people won't let their meat cook. , they 
want to taste the broth. 

241. Written Exercise. Insert subordi- 
nate statements denoting cause. Begin with 
Because, Since, or As. 

1. A nail fell out of a horseshoe. , the shoe 
was lost. 

2. The shoe fell off the horse's foot. , the 
horse was lost. 

3. The horse fell and broke his knees. , the 
rider was lost. 

4. Sinbad looked up at the smooth cliffs of the valley. 

, he thought he must die. 

5. Beowulf fixed his fearful grip on Grendel's arm. 

, he tore away, leaving an arm. 

242. Written Exercise. Insert subordi- 
nate statements denoting a condition necessary 
to the fulfilment of the main statement. Be- 
gin with If, Unless, or Provided. Choose the 
best word. 

1. It isn't a bear. , it would bite you. 

2. Painstaking may become a pleasure. , profit 
will follow. 

3. All sorts of persons give good counsel. , it's 
no matter who gave it. 


4. Many a snarling dog cannot bite. , he had 
better not show his teeth. 

5. Yon are playing with boys. , you must take 
boys' play. 

6. Some masters don't pay their servants. , he 
will pay himself. 

7. Youth doesn't know what age will crave. , 
it would both get and save. 

243. Written Exercise. Insert subordi- 
nate clauses denoting concession; that is to 
say, begin with Though, Although, or Even if. 

1. You say this is madness. , there's method in it. 

2. I'll tell you something about healed sores. , 
yet its scar may remain. 

3. The fool has a fine coat, I admit. , 'tis but 
a fool's coat. 

4. It requires several grains to fill a sack. , yet 
it helps. 

5. Don't abuse a gentle mastiff. , don't bite 
him by the lip. 

244. The third danger in punctuating a com- 
plex sentence is that of leaving out a needed 
comma after a subordinate clause which stands 
first. A comma is almost always needed in 
this position: 

1. While he was saying so, he pulled out his watch. 

2. While England is certainly a monarchy, it is no 


Beginners usually neglect to place a comma 
between a subordinate clause and the main state- 
ment which follows it. 

245. Oral Exercise. Needed commas 
have been removed from some of the follow- 
ing sentences. Point out the subordinate 
clauses and say where commas are needed. 

garfield's ten minutes 

When President Garfield was a young fellow working 
his way through college he tried to stand at the head of 
his classes. Although he succeeded in doing so in some 
studies there was one class in which he never stood 
higher than second. Even if he gave especial attention 
to his lesson on a given day he was sure to find one man 
ahead of him in the recitation. Since this experience 
came to poor Garfield daily he made up his mind to find 
out the reason why one man always beat him. 

As this man roomed across the way from Garfield 
Garfield determined to watch his method of work, if 
possible. He learned that his friend studied the before- 
mentioned subject in the evening as he considered it his 
easiest study. When the evening came that day Garfield 
prepared his lesson with especial care. As soon as the 
task was finished to his satisfaction he arose and looked 
out of the window. His friend's light was still burning. 
Garfield went back to his book and spent ten minutes 
more for he was determined to win if mere time could 
be the means. When the ten minutes w 7 ere over he found 
that he had learned several new things. He rose just in 
time to see his rival's light go out. 


"So that's the way he does it!" said Garfield. "He 
spends ten minutes more than I usually spend. As the 
plan seems to serve him well I will try it, and work ten 
minutes more than he." He went back to his book. 
The next day Garfield stood at the head of his class. 



246. Whenever we think, we of course think 
something about something. The process is 
very quick, and we are not conscious that it has 
parts. But every thought has two parts, namely 
the subject of thought, and that which is per- 
ceived about the subject. A thought is called 
a judgment, and its two parts are called the 
thought-subject and the thought-predicate. 

247. When a child begins to talk, it ex- 
presses its thought-subject and thought-predi- 
cate very briefly. Indeed, it often forgets to 
give the subject, taking for granted that the 
hearer knows what is being spoken of. If the 
child wishes to be taken up, it says " Up ! " 
This word is a crude expression of the thought- 
predicate only. 

248. As the child grows, he comes to under- 
stand that if he is to be understood he must try 

k 129 


to express both subject and predicate. If he 
has noticed that several creatures have eyes, he 
will not say merely " Eyes ! " but will tediously 
declare, " Kitty — eyes. Dolly — eyes. Baby — 
eyes. Mamma — eyes. Daddy — eyes. Buvver 

— eyes." If brother sits down in the baby's 
rocking-chair, the owner will not merely shout 
" Up ! Up ! " but will pour forth a string of 
judgments, a considerable effort for the little 
mind. He will say, " Baby — chair. Buvver 

— no ! Buvver — up ! Baby — rock ! Baby 

— chair." 

249. The child is now on the highroad to 
true command of language in full statements. 
Yet even after he becomes a man, he will do his 
thinking in very few words compared with the 
number he must use in speaking or writing. 
His mind may frame only one word for the sub- 
ject and one for the predicate, where his pen 
will have to frame half a dozen. Suppose the 
general topic of his thought to be a certain book. 
His mind will flash from phase to phase of it, 
forming judgment after judgment in some such 
way as this : "Book — mine. Thickness — 
inch. Length — six inches. Cover — yellow- 
ish. Title — Applied Grammar. 'Applied' — 


queer word. Grammar — dry. Pictures — not 
so dry. Binding — rough. Binding — cloth. 
Rough cloth — buckram. Cloth — threads. 
Threads — crushed." These are not statements, 
you see. They are merely couples of ideas ex- 
pressed in words. They can easily be made into 
statements, however, as : " This book is mine. 
The thickness of it is about an inch," etc. 1 

250. When the relation between a pair of 
ideas is fully stated in words, so that the person 
addressed feels that the speaker's complete judg- 
ment has been asserted, the result is a sentence. 
Our former definition of the sentence (181) may 
now be enlarged a little. A sentence is the com- 
pletely worded expression of a judgment, and is 
usually a statement, an inquiry, or a command. 

1 The novelist Dickens has a character who expresses him- 
self not in sentences but in catch-words, which indicate but 
roughly the succeeding pairs of ideas as they flash through 
his mind. How this character (Mr. Alfred Jingle, of the 
Pickwick Papers) flings out his thoughts may be seen by 
this passage : 

"Heads, heads — take care of your heads!" cried the 
loquacious stranger, as they came out under the low arch- 
way. ' ' Terrible place — dangerous work — other day — five 
children — mother — tall lady — eating sandwiches — forgot 
the arch — crash — knock — children look round — mother's 
head off — sandwich in her hand — no mouth to put it in — 
head of a family off — shocking, shocking ! " 


251. A statement is called a declarative sen- 
tence, an inquiry an interrogative sentence, and 
a command an imperative sentence. Any sen- 
tence that is uttered with strong feelings be- 
comes also an exclamatory sentence. " That is 
a beautiful sky" is declarative; but "That is 
a beautiful sky! " and " How beautiful that sky 
is ! " are exclamatory as well as declarative. If 
we ask " Would you do a thing like that ? " 
the sentence is merely interrogative; but if we 
say "Would you do a thing like that!" it 
becomes exclamatory also. 

252. Oral Exercise. Below are given 
twenty judgments completely expressed, yield- 
ing twenty sentences. Take each in turn and 
say whether it is declarative, interrogative, or 
imperative, and in case it has also been rendered 
exclamatory, say so. 

1. Beware of small expenses. 2. Keep off the grass ! 
3. A word to the wise is enough. 4. Can a mill grind 
with the water that is past? 5. Keep your tongue within 
your teeth. 6. Let bygones be bygones. 7. Who will 
bell the cat? 8. Whatever is saved is earned. 9. I wish 
you would hand me the dictionary. 1 10. Please hand 

1 "I wish, etc.," is a request, but it makes a statement, 
rtnd is therefore declarative. 


me the dictionary. 1 11. Hand me that dictionary ! 
12. You will go, then ? 13. It is an old saying that he 
who goes a borrowing goes a sorrowing. 14. Kindly 
close the door. 15. What a piece of work is man ! 

16. What is man, that Thou art mindful of him ! 

17. Sits the wind in that quarter? 18. Drop by drop 
the lake is drained. 19. Down the hill goes merrily. 
20. Care will kill a cat. 

253. Every sentence, like the judgment which 
it expresses, consists of two parts. 

The subject of a sentence is the part naming 
that of which something is stated, inquired, 
requested, or commanded. 

The predicate of a sentence is the part which 
states, inquires, requests, or commands, con- 
cerning the subject. 

254. The naming part of a declarative sen- 
tence is usually easy to see. It generally stands 
first, as below. 

Subject Predicate 

1. The apple is a delicious fruit. 

2. It grows in most countries. 

255. But not infrequently it stands after the 
predicate, as on the following page. 

1 " Please, etc.," is also a request, but it is to be classed as 


Predicate Subject 

1. Under those leaves are some apples. 

2. Down will come baby, cradle, and all. 

256. Again, the subject of the declarative 
sentence may stand in the midst of the predi- 
cate, as below. 

Part of predicate Subject Rest of Predicate 

1. Drop by drop the lake is drained. 

2. In the land of the blind the one-eyed man is king. 

257. In the case of interrogative sentences, 
the subject usually stands in the midst of the 
predicate, thus : 

Part of predicate 


Rest of predicate 

1. Isn't 

the apple 

a delicious fruit? 

2. Have 


read what John Bur- 
roughs wrote of it ? 

258. In imperative sentences, the predicate 
is commanded concerning the idea you. Some- 
times this you is expressed, as in " Don't you 
stir till I come ! ' : More often it is merely 
implied, the word you not occurring to the 
speaker's mind at all. Thus we have, " Don't 
stir till I come." 

259. Oral Exercise. In the following 
sentences the subjects are printed in italics. 


Study the lesson until you are able to give the 
subject of each sentence on hearing the sen- 
tence read. 

Fishing is the delight of every boy, savage or civilized. 
Fish are made to be caught. Often they are caught. 
Sometimes they get away. Large ones are very likely to 
getaway. That is natural. Large fish are strong. They 
break hooks and lines. Whether fishing is exciting or not 
depends on circumstances. Fishing for salmon is doubt- 
less a thrilling business. Fishing for bull-heads on a dark 
night is not usually exciting. It may become so, however. 
It is exciting enough if you get stung by a bull-head. It 
is fairly exciting if you catch an eel. An eel is an ex- 
citable, nervous fish. He finds it hard to keep still. In 
the middle of a boat a large eel makes trouble. You step 
on him. Everybody does. " Where is he ? " u There he 
is." " Hit him with an oar ! " U I can't. You hit him." 
" The beast is in my fishline. It is badly snarled up." 
The boat is all dark. It is darkest in one corner. The 
eel gets into that corner at last. One hears him there 
occasionally. When you get home he will still be alive. 
The much-enduring creature will be ready to make more 

260. Oral Exercise. Pick out the sub- 
ject and the predicate of each of the follow- 
ing sentences. Remember that every sentence 
divides into two elements, no matter how few 
or how many words each element contains. 

1. Debt kills. 2. To be in debt kills. 3. Being in 
debt kills. 4. That debt kills is true. 5. " Debt kills " 


is a true saying. 6. Debt kills people. 7. To be in debt 
kills people. 8. Being in debt kills people. 9. That 
debt kills people is true. 10. "Debt kills people" is a 
true saying. 11. Walls stand. 12. That wall stands. 
13. The ancient wall is still standing. 14. This wall is 
white. 15. A white wall is like paper. 16. A white 
wall is a fool's paper. 17. Desks which are smooth are 
extremely useful to students. 18. This desk is smooth. 
19. This desk was very smooth. 20. Smooth wood is 
beautiful. 21. It has a fine surface. 22. This desk is 
not owned by me. 23. I am no thief. 21. I know other 
people's property. 25. My desk cannot be called a fool's 
paper. 26. Wood can be beautifully carved. 27. In 
Japan, wood is carved beautifully. 28. Carved wood or- 
naments gates in Japan. 29. Delicate wood-carvings on 
Japanese gates are safe. 30. The Japanese boy cannot 
be called a vandal. 31. That fellow, the " Jap" boy, is 
a gentleman. 32. A bargain is a bargain. 33. A bark- 
ing dog seldom bites. 34. When the sky falls, we 1 shall 
catch larks. 35. If wishes were horses, the beggars might 
ride. 36. Charity suffereth long. 37. Content is all. 
38. Down the hill goes merrily. 39. A book that re- 
mains shut is but a block. 40. Enough is as good as a 
feast. 41. Every donkey loves to hear himself bray. 
42. Where are the roses of yesterday? 43. Any fool 
can find fault. 44. For want of a shoe the horse was 
lost. 45. Good bargains are pickpockets. 46. Great 
spenders are bad lenders. 47. Half a loaf is better than 
no bread. 48. Look before you leap. 49. You got what 
letter? 50. Weeds want no sowing. 51. In w T hat re- 
ligion were you told that a man must live? 52. Though 
thou hadst all the artillery of Woolwich thundering at 

1 We is the subject. Sky is the subject of a subordinate 
clause, but is not the subject of this sentence. 


thy back in support of an unjust thing, I should counsel 
thee to cry " Halt ! " 53. The fool saith, " Who would 
have thought it?" 54. " They say so " is half a lie. 

261. We have called the subject of a sentence 
the part naming that about which something 
is stated, inquired, requested, or commanded. 
But this is only a rough definition. Suppose 
we say, We found an immense fish on the shore 
this morning. Is the statement made about 
fish, or about we? 

If we emphasize we, then the statement is 
chiefly about we. If we emphasize fish, it is 
chiefly about fish. But in any case we is gram- 
matically the subject, for it is a subject-form of 
the pronoun, and it stands before the verb. 

262. Then you will say : Why, in that case, 
we may be only a " dummy " subject ; just a 
mere form. Yes, we will be only a formal 
subject if the speaker's mind was full of the 
idea fish. 

263. Suppose now we say, " It is too bad that 
father must go away so soon." Here the formal 
subject is it, but the real subject is " that father 
should go away so soon." The sentence could 
be written, " That father must go away so soon 
is too bad." It was used merely to put the 


predicate is too bad in an emphatic place, at the 
beginning of the sentence. 

When the word it is used at the beginning of 
a sentence merely to throw emphasis on the 
predicate, which is then followed by the true 
subject, it is called the expletive (or unneces- 
sary) subject. 

264. In another kind of sentence it is used as 
a formal subject, but not as an expletive. 

It snows. 

It is hot this morning. 

In these cases the speaker uses a formal subject, 
it, because every English sentence must have a 
subject. But his mind is thinking of the predi- 
cate only. He does not ask what snows — 
whether it is a cloud, or the sky, or the feather- 
bed of a fairy. He does not care whether it is 
air or weather or temperature which is hot. 
The heat exists, and he takes the it way of say- 
ing so. Such a sentence is called impersonal. 

265. Another word, There, is used as an ex- 
pletive to throw emphasis on some part of the 
sentence. Unlike It, the word There throws 
emphasis chiefly on the subject. " There's mu- 
sic in the air " means the same as " Music is in 
the air," but There emphasizes the word music. 


In such, sentences the predicate is often 
merely the word is, but the sentence sounds 
strange when deprived of There. " There's a 
best way of doing everything " means " A best 
way of doing everything is." But nobody would 
ever use the second form. 

266. Oral Exercise. Point out the formal 
subjects and the thought subjects in the follow- 
ing sentences. Several sentences have only 
formal subjects. 

1. It is easier to pull down than to build. 2. It will all 
be the same in a hundred years. 3. It is for want of 
thinking that most men come to grief. 4. It is a wicked 
thing to make a dearth one's garner. 5. It is good to be 
merry at meat. 6. It is never too late to learn. 7. There 
is a devil in every berry of the grape. 8. There goes some 
reason to the roasting of eggs. 9. There is a best way of 
doing everything, even boiling an egg. 10. There is no 
royal road to learning. 11. There will be many a dry 
cheek after him. 12. There is no rule without an 

267. We have seen that the process of form- 
ing a judgment is a very quick one. It is so 
quick that the mind is not conscious of making 
a predicate about a subject. The whole thought 
seems to be one thing, without parts. 

One of the morals of this is that when we 
write a sentence we should not indicate the end 


of the subject by any mark of punctuation. If our 

subject is so long that we have to put a sign- 
board to show where it ends, why, we had better 
shorten our subject. And if we have a habit 
of putting our pen-point down on the paper 
just to rest the hand, we should reform that 
habit altogether. 

268. Below are two columns showing the cor- 
rect and the incorrect method of punctuating 
subject and predicate. 

Wrong Pointing of Subject 
and Predicate 

1. The eyes, are very 

2. The eyes, of the per- 
son I here describe, are very 

3. To have some one 
cackling at your elbow, 
spoils your walk. 

4. Our chief disappoint- 
ment was the fact, that the 
water was muddy. 

5. The intelligent face 
of St. Francis, has a thin, 
delicate nose. 

Right Pointing of Subject 
and Predicate 

1. The eyes are very 

2. The eyes of the per- 
son I here describe are very 

3. To have some one 
cackling at your elbow 
spoils your walk. 

4. Our chief disappoint- 
ment was the fact that the 
water was muddy. 

5. The intelligent face 
of St. Francis has a thin, 
delicate nose. 

269. Written Exercise. Study Mr. Bough- 
ton's picture of "Puritans Going to Church." 



Then copy and finish all the sentences given 
below. Be careful to place no punctuation 
after the subject of any sentence. 


The scene of Mr. Boughton's picture called " Puritans 
Going to Church " is in old New England. A party of 


fourteen persons is passing through 
ground there is . The ground 

In the back- 
That there is 

danger of the party's being attacked by Indians is clear 

from . One of the two men who form the rear 

guard already fears that . It is he who is holding 

out . The two men who lead the party . But 

the little Puritan maiden who walks with her mother in 
the centre of the line . 

270. Every written question, or interrogative 
sentence, should end with a question mark (?). 


This is not a hard rule to apply, but it is a 
hard rule to remember to apply. Beginners 
are likely to end questions with the period. 

271. Written Exercise. Write as many 
intelligent questions as you can about the pic- 
ture of " Puritans Going to Church," and end 
each with a question mark. It is not neces- 
sary that you should be able to answer every 
question that you write about the picture. 
All that is necessary is to ask sensible, serious 

272. We have seen that in written language 
it is usually important to express each judg- 
ment in a full statement, so that it may not 
be misunderstood. We shall now consider cer- 
tain recognized expressions which are not full 
statements but are accepted as such. 

273. Such words as Yes and No make what 
we may call implied statements. Yes implies 
some such statement as " I agree with you," or 
"I will comply with your wish." A single 
word that implies a statement may be called 
a sentence-word. 

274. The commonest sentence-words are ex- 
clamations, which are often better means of 


expressing feeling than statements would be. 
A word like Hurrah! implies some such state- 
ment as "I am mightily pleased." But people 
will understand Hurrah! quicker than the 
statement. They will understand Ouch! 
quicker than any assertion about pain. In 
such words as Hurrah! and Ouch! the feeling 
is often expressed before the implied state- 
ment has time to be formed in the mind. 

275. Exclamatory sentence-words are called 
interjections. An interjection is a sentence-word 
expressing a feeling, as in the case of Alas ! or 
Hurrah! or a half-command, as in the case of 
Hush ! or Behold ! or See ! 

276. Often a single word implies the state- 
ment "I am speaking to you." In "John, 
you come here," John implies that John is 
being addressed. A sentence-word used to 
inform a person that he is addressed is called 
a vocative. 

277. Oral Exercise. Read aloud the fol- 
lowing anecdote. Then point out each sen- 
tence-word, and tell what statement it seems 
to you to imply. 


john's notion of " ferment " 

" Can you spell ferment, Alice ? " said the teacher. 

" Yes, Mr. Varney," answered Alice. " F-e-r-m-e-n-t." 

" Can you define the word, my dear ? " 

" No, sir." 

" Then, John, can you define it ? " 

" Certainly!" said John. "Ferment means to work. 
It says so in the dictionary." 

" Dear me ! " sighed small Alice to herself. " How 
clever John is." 

" Now can you use the word for me in a sentence, 

" Yes, sir. I had rather play out of doors than ferment 
in the schoolhouse." 

278. Sentence-words are usually written with 
a sentence. They form no grammatical part of 
it, being implied sentences themselves ; but be- 
cause they are attached to the sentence closely, 
being written somewhere between the capital 
and the period, they are called independent ele- 
ments of it. 

In " John, you are wanted," the vocative John 
is an independent element of its sentence. 

In " You ! you come here," the first You is 
an independent element, while the second you 
is the subject of come. 

In " John, come here," John is an independent 
element, and the sentence-word come implies the 


subject you. John is here not the subject of 
come. We pause after the word John, and put 
a comma, to show that John is first spoken to, 
and then told to come. 

279. Remember that a vocative is regularly 
separated from its sentence by a comma or an ex- 
clamation point. 

280. Sometimes a full statement, or a phrase 
implying a statement, is inserted within a 
sentence. Three such independent elements 
are printed in italics in the following sen- 
tence. " Coming home hungry (it is remark- 
able how often boys come home hungry^) John 
went straight to the pantry, and, truth to tell, 
consumed six biscuits and a quart of milk ; but 
— such was his haste — he was nearly choked by 
the milk." 

A full sentence or a phrase implying a sen- 
tence may be inserted within another sentence, 
where it is called a parenthesis. In writing, we 
set off a parenthesis by curves ( ), or dashes 
( ), or commas (, ,). 

281. The independent elements of a sentence 
are interjections, vocatives, and parentheses. 


282. Exercise. Read aloud the following 
story. Then point out the independent elements 
of the sentences, and describe them as interjec- 
tions, vocatives, or parentheses. 

The Retired Burglar's Story 

"My son," said the retired burglar, "I had an odd 
experience one night. I got into a house and went up 
the front stairs. There was a light shining through the 
crack of a door. * Pshaw ! ' said I, or something worse. 
I looked in. ' Hello ! ' thought I, ' this is curious/ A 
man was standing there, all dressed, at the foot of a bed. 
On the bed was a boy, very still and white and sick. The 
board my foot was on creaked, and the man looked my 
way. ' Come in,' he said, and I went in. The child 
looked up at me (he was lying in such a way that he 
could easily see me), but he said nothing. Then the man 
(I know you won't believe this) said to me as softly as 
you please, ' I wish you would go for the doctor, my friend. 
I can't leave my boy.' ' Yes, sir,' said I. ' Where will I 
find him, sir?' He told me where to go, and I went. 
The doctor was asleep, of course, but I banged on his 
door. ' Ah, there ! ' said I, when he thrust his head out 
of the window, ' Is that you, doctor ? ' ' Who else would 
it be, you disturber of the peace ? ' said he (he was a little 
man, but he was emphatic). < The man wants you up at 
that brown house where the light is.' He said ' All right, 
I'll be up there immediately.' He had been expecting 
the message, as it were. I waited till I saw him on the 
road up the hill — I thought he might delay — and then 
I went on my own way, still feeling very much surprised 
in my throat, so to speak." 



283. Written Exercise. Choose one of 
the two pictures and write a little story about 
it, giving such exclamations and vocatives as 


you think the various persons might probably 
utter. End each interjection or exclamatory 
sentence with the exclamation point. Separate 


each vocative from its sentence by a comma or 
an exclamation point. An exclamation point 
standing between any sentence-word and its 
sentence is followed by a small letter. 

The first picture shows two English princes 
who were imprisoned, by a cruel uncle, in the 


Tower of London, and there put to death. The 
older prince is Edward, who was rightfully king 
of England, and ought to have been crowned as 
Edward the Fifth. The younger prince is 
named Richard. Their cruel uncle Gloster 
became Richard the Third. 


The second picture is a bicycling scene in 
Norway. You may find it convenient to give 
names to the boys and girls — such names as 
Olga, Hilda, Anna, Augusta, Frida, Gustaf, 
Olaf, Ole, Hans. 



284. When we say one thing about one thing, 
we make a simple sentence. But we may wish 
to say the same thing about two or more sub- 
jects ; in this case we usually make a compound 
subject, as in " Jack and Jill went up the hill." 

Again, we may wish to say two or more things 
about one subject ; in this case we do not usually 
repeat the subject, but make a compound predi- 
cate, as in "Jack fell down and broke his crown." 

A simple sentence has one subject and one 
predicate, either of which may be compound. 

285. A compound subject or predicate may 
be of considerable length, as the sentences fol- 
lowing will show. 

Compound Subject Simple Predicate 

1. Neither great poverty nor > ^ h 

great riches ) 

2. Men, monkeys, bears, chick- ) are animals 
adees, flounders, and oysters 



Simple Subject Compound Predicate 

o Th fi H i sw ^ ms '. or sm ks, or wades, or creeps, 

\ or flies. 

a a -j ( makes the heart stout and strengthens 

4. A good cause j the arm# * 

286. Often no punctuation is needed to 
show the parts of a compound subject or 

1. Jack and Jill went up the hill. 

2. Jack fell down and broke his crown. 

3. Neither great poverty nor great riches will hear 

287. But if the compound subject or predi- 
cate consists of several simple subjects or predi- 
cates, commas may be needed to keep them 
apart. This is so in sentences 2 and 3 in 285. 
You see (in 2) that the comma may take the 
place of and. But notice that the comma 
occurs before one and in such a series. 

Show where commas should be inserted in the 
following sentences. 

1. Joy temperance and repose slam the door on the 
doctor's nose. 

2. It rained blew and finally hailed. 

3. Caesar Pompey and Crassus ruled Rome together. 

4. Csesar came saw and conquered. 

5. Neither ridicule threats nor blows could change 
the boy's purpose. 


288. When the two parts of the predicate are 
long, so as to seem like two separate statements, 
a comma is needed. This is especially true 
before but. 

1. God stays long, but strikes at last. 

2. He stood silent a minute, and then began to speak. 

3. President Lincoln's son Tad was at one time much 
annoyed by the bragging ways of a snobbish schoolmate 
who did not as yet know Tad's parentage, and on being- 
asked who his father was replied, " A woodchopper." 

289. Oral Exercise. Point out each com- 
pound subject and compound predicate in the 
following anecdote. Then consider each place 
which is underlined, and say whether it needs 
a comma or not. Give your reasons. 


Mr. Hearn is a writer and traveler. He knows the 
Japanese language we ll an d has recently become a Jap- 
anese citizen. He spea ks an d writes the language per- 
fectly now but was some time in learning it. Before he 
had mastered it he met with a peculiar experience and 
was much amused by it. 

A Japanese gentleman and scholar was entertaining 
Mr. Hearn. He had heard that his guest was a literary 
man and was much interested in the fact. Now in 
Japan a man of letters usually holds a high office of 
some sort and is in every way a person of great authority. 
But he must possess one particular art, that of writing a 


hand as clear as engraving. One day the host came into 
the room where Mr. Hearn was and noticed some 
sheets of paper on which Mr. Hearn had written certain 
memoranda. He looked at the manuscript with great 
respect but did not seem enthusiastic. Mr. Hearn and 
his interpreter were talking together later in the day and 
were speaking of the host. Then Mr. Hearn learned 
that the host had remarked, " He must have had great 
personal popularity at home that they did not send him 
to writing-school before they sent him abroad." 

290. When two statements that may be 
written as wholes are very closely related in 
sense, they may be joined together in one com- 
pound sentence. Each will keep its own subject 
and predicate and will be equally important with 
its neighbor; but both will form one whole. 

This joining together of two grammatically 
independent statements may be effected in 
several ways. Let us take the two sen- 
tences : 

We may give advice. We cannot give conduct. 

They are closely related to each other by 
the principle of contrast. We may join them 
thus : 

1. We may give advice; we cannot give conduct. 

2. We may give advice ; but we cannot give conduct. 

3. We may give advice, but we cannot give conduct. 

4. We may give advice but we cannot give conduct. 


In the first of these four compounds, the capi- 
tal letter of the second sentence is dropped, 
whereupon a semicolon takes the place of the 
period, and we have two independent clauses 
of equal rank. The semicolon has the power of 
the period to stand between statements gram- 
matically independent of each other. It is used 
to connect independent statements which are 
closely related in sense. 

In the second compound sentence we keep 
the semicolon and connect the sentences by 
but, thus making the junction less abrupt and 
the contrast a little clearer. 

In the third sentence we keep the but and 
place a comma before it, to make the connec- 
tion still closer. Except for the word but, we 
should not dare change the semicolon to a 
comma, for ordinarily the comma may not sepa- 
rate statements that are grammatically indepen- 
dent of each other. 

In the fourth compound we throw away the 
comma and keep only the connective but, thus 
securing the closest possible junction of the 
two statements. Joining two sentences into 
one by only the word but is not common, and 
often not safe. But sometimes means except; 
and such a sentence as " He gave away all the 


money but one dollar was returned " must 
be read twice before we see what it means. 
A comma would have shown at once that but 
was to introduce a statement. 

291. Of the four kinds of contrast-com- 
pounds, the third is by far the most common 
type. Make it a general rule not to connect 
two independent statements by but without 
placing a comma before but. 

292. Written Exercise. Join each two 
sentences as follows. Change the capital of the 
second sentence to a small letter. Between the 
sentences put either a semicolon (;) or a comma 
with but (, but), according as you think best. 

For example, the first two sentences are best 
joined by a semicolon, thus : 

After dinner sit awhile ; after supper walk a mile. 

The third pair of sentences needs a comma 
with but: 

You smile, but you bite. 

1. After dinner sit awhile. After supper walk a mile. 
2. Clowns are best in their own company. Gentlemen 
are best everywhere. 3. You smile. You bite. 4. We 
are bound to be honest. We are not bound to be rich. 
5. Be bold. Be not too bold. 6. Experience keeps a 


dear school. Fools will learn in no other. 7. God stays 
long. He strikes at last. 8. He is rich. He is not 
satisfied. 9. His clothes are worth pounds. His wit is 
dear at a penny. 10. Knowledge is a treasure. Prac- 
tise is the key to it. 11. Lips may be rosy. They must 
be fed. 12. Samson was a strong man. He could not 
pay money before he had it. 13. Spend not where you 
may save. Spare not where you must spend. 14. The 
fool's coat may be fine. It is only a fool's coat. 15. Fop- 
pishness is vulgar. Neatness never made a fop. 16. Fine 
clothes never won a position. Clean nails have made a 
man rich. 17. Labor makes dirty hands. Hands hon- 
estly dirty make clean money. 18. 'Tis a wicked world. 
We make a part of it. 

293. People have occasion to make compound 
sentences by means of and quite as often as by 
means of but. Little children seem to begin 
half their sentences with this word. They say 
And while they are thinking what to say next. 

But it is not often wise to write And at the 
beginning of a sentence. Take any printed 
page you please ; you could insert And before 
nearly every sentence without really changing 
the sense. 

294. When two statements express parts of 
one thought, or tell two acts that together 
make but one step in the story, it is well 
to join them in one sentence. Examples; 


1. The clock struck one, and the mouse ran down. 

2. Washington reached Yorktown, and the siege began. 

3. Art is long and life is short. 

A beginner should be cautious about joining 
more than two statements by AND. 

There are two reasons for insisting on this 
rule. If the beginner breaks it, his reader may 
lose his breath in reading the string of and 
statements; or may lose the thought because 
things really different in meaning are offered 
as if they were alike in meaning. 

Try to read this sentence aloud : 

" We started about breakfast time after eating a hastily 
prepared meal and we rode along toward Atlantic City 
and enjoyed the fresh air till we suddenly came to a 
halt and saw that we had come to an inlet about half a 
mile wide and we were at a loss what to do and my chum 
said there must be a little steamer if we only waited long 
enough and there was but it didn't come till ten o'clock." 

Also try to understand this sentence : 

" At last we got aboard the steamer and put our wheels 
on the forward deck and did you ever sit and watch the 
water as it looks at the prow of a boat and wonder why 
there is a little hill of it all the time just in front of the 
sharp stem ? " 

You can understand the last sentence, to be 
sure ; but you object to being dragged from 
topic to topic. Your mind expected a pause 


in the story after the wheels were safely on 
deck. Had there been a decent pause, a period, 
you would have been glad to listen to the inter- 
esting question about the water at the prow. 

295. Independent statements that are closely 
connected in meaning may be connected in one 
sentence by four methods, as in the case of 

1. The rain descended; the floods came; the winds 

2. The rain descended ; and the floods came ; and the 
winds blew. 

3. The rain descended, and the floods came, and the 
winds blew. 

4. The rain descended and the floods came and the 
winds blew. 

Which of these forms is the most emphatic ? 
Which is the least emphatic but makes the 
closest union? 

As in the case of but, it is often unsafe to 
use the fourth form, that without any mark 
of punctuation. How might the following 
sentence be misunderstood at first? 

The pickerel broke the line and the net — just saved him. 

296. Such a compound as " We can give 
advice, but we cannot give conduct " is a com- 


pound sentence merely because we is repeated 
for emphasis. It could be shortened to a simple 
sentence with compound predicate : " We can 
give advice, but cannot give conduct." Indeed, 
we may shorten further to " We can give 
advice, but not conduct." 

Whether the shorter forms are better than 
the longer depends on circumstances. In 
general, young writers use more words than 
are necessary to express their thoughts. 

297. Written Exercise. Condense each 
two sentences into one. Let the new sen- 
tence be as short as possible. Explain your 

1. A boaster is a cousin to the liar. A liar is a cousin 
to the boaster. 2. Eating takes away the appetite. 
Drinking takes away the appetite. 3. Danger grows on 
the same stock as delight. Delight grows on the same 
stock as danger. 4. Penny laid up with penny will in- 
crease. They will be many. 5. The ignorant has an 
eagle's wings. He has also an owl's eyes. 6. Truths 
have thorns about them. Roses have thorns too. 

7. Youth takes any impression. So does white paper. 

8. Children are certain cares. But they are uncertain 
comforts. 9. Be thou bold. But be thou not too bold. 
10. Good jests bite like lambs. They do not bite like 
dogs. 11. One may understand like an angel. Yet one 
may be a devil. 12. Wars are pleasant in the ear. They 
are not pleasant in the eye. 


298. " Afterthoughts " often play havoc with 
punctuation, as we saw in 193 and 235. The 
afterthought may occur to the writer as a phrase, 
a subordinate clause, or a part of a compound 

Wrong Pointing of "Afterthoughts " 

Phrase. She has beautiful golden hair. And 
blue eyes. 

Phrase. She has beautiful golden hair. But 
not blue eyes. 

Phrase. She has beautiful golden hair. Her 
eyes being blue. 

Subordinate clause. She has beautiful golden 
hair. So that her blue eyes mate it. 

Subordinate clause. She has beautiful golden 
hair. As her mother had before her. 

Part of compound predicate. She has beau- 
tiful golden hair. And is like her mother in 

Part of compound predicate. She has beau- 
tiful golden hair. But lets it go unkempt. 

Part of compound predicate. He knows all 
about guns. Or thinks he does. 

In every case the period should have been 
a comma, and the succeeding capital a small 


Right Pointing of "Afterthoughts " 

She has beautiful golden hair, and blue eyes. 

She has beautiful golden hair, but not blue 

She has beautiful golden hair, her eyes being 

She has beautiful golden hair, so that her blue 
eyes mate it. 

She has beautiful golden hair, as her mother 
had before her. 

She has beautiful golden hair, and is like her 
mother in this. 

She has beautiful golden hair, but lets it go 

He knows all about guns, or thinks he 

Sometimes it is well to stop on finding such 
an error in our work, and ask whether we did 
not really wish to make an independent state- 
ment. Take an example : 

" He ran away to the wars and never came home 
again. And was never even heard of." 

Here it would be better to change the And 
to Indeed, and supply the missing subject : 

"He ran away to the w r ars and never came home 
again. Indeed, he was never heard of." 



299. Written Exercise. Write an ac- 
count of what is happening in the picture. 
Give one sentence to each of the following : the 
room, the examining officer, the clerk, the guard, 
the little girl, the two women. Give two or 
three sentences to the boy, the central figure. 
Use and and but as freely as you think best, but 


consider the punctuation in each case. Head 
your paper, " And when did you last see your 
father ? " Read your work aloud and defend 
the punctuation. 

300. Written Exercise. Write a short 
account of some trip that you took with other 
persons or another person, telling what hap- 


pened and what each person did. Use and, but, 
or, nor as freely as you think best, but consider 
the punctuation. Head your paper appropri- 
ately. Read it aloud ; point out the compound 
sentences, subjects, and predicates ; and defend 
the punctuation. 

To the Teacher. Other exercises similar to those of 
299 and 300 should be set at this point if the student 
has not yet learned how to punctuate his own compound 
sentences and predicates. 




301. We have learned how to divide a sen- 
tence into its subject and predicate. We next 
try to see how a sentence is built up of words. 

A word is first a sound, or a group of sounds, 
as, for example, that which we make in say- 
ing black. Then it is a written or printed 
sign for the sound : for example, the group 
of five letters that we call black. The word 
is the sign of an idea, the idea of black. In 
making statements, we find ourselves wishing 
to use the idea of black in various ways. We 
may say : 

1. Black is very different from white. 

2. A crow is a black bird. 

3. But a crow is not a blackbird. 

4. Boys black their shoes. 

In the first sentence we treat the idea of 
black as if it were a thing. In the second we 
put black before bird to show what kind of 
bird a crow is. In the third we fasten black 
to bird, making one solid word. In the fourth 



we use black to tell what boys do to their 

We have used black as three different " parts 
of speech " : first as a noun, then (twice) as 
an adjective, then as a verb. The parts of 
speech are eight classes to which words may 
be assigned, chiefly according to their use in 
sentences. The same word is never assigned 
to all the eight classes, but it may be assigned 
to two or three. Thus black is a verb, an 
adjective, or a noun, according to circumstances. 

302. The eight parts of speech are : nouns, 
pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, 
conjunctions, and interjections. 

Examples : 

Nouns : John, shot-gun, fox, death. 
Pronouns: I, you, he, who. 
Verbs: thinks, tries, expects, succeeds. 
Adjectives : the, large, strong, manly. 
Adverbs : now, here, bravely, steadily. 
Prepositions : in, at, to, with. 
Conjunctions: and, but, if, although. 
Interjections : ah ! 'rah ! hurrah ! hello ! 



303. Verb defined. In the strict sense, a 
verb is a single word which can take a sub- 
ject; it is the simplest predicate. In this 
chapter, therefore, verb will always mean a 
single word, like runs, or ran. Elsewhere in 
this book we sometimes find it convenient to 
treat certain whole phrases, like will run, as 

In a statement or a question, the subject of 
an English verb must always be expressed 
(186, 257). In a command it need not be 
expressed. The verb can form a whole com- 
mand, as "Go!" (258). 

304. The verb makes the speaker responsible. 
If we say the boy, we utter merely a name. 
A name expresses no opinion, wish, or com- 
mand. But the minute we add a verb to the 
name, as in The boy lies, we are held respon- 
sible for a statement. 

It is true that we can often modify our 
responsibility by putting certain words with 



the verb. We can say Perhaps this boy lies, 
or If he lies, he is a liar. 1 Putting if before 
a verb lessens its responsibility, but shows 
that another verb is coming which will share 
the responsibility. In the sentence above, is 
a liar expresses the speaker's belief, as modified 
by If he lies. 

The verb is the asserter, and makes the 
speaker (not the subject) responsible for the 

305. The verb explains the subject. We learn 
names long before we know all they mean. 
Fire means little to the baby till he under- 
stands what the fire does. He learns gradually 
that fire shines, burns, heats, dries, crackles, 
leaps, spreads, cooks. Every time he learns a 
new action of the fire, that act explains fire 
to him. His notion of the fire is changed, 
modified, made completer. 

When the child wishes to warn another 
child, he says: " Look out! fire burns I v He 
uses the verb to explain the noun. He modi- 
fies the other child's idea of fire. His verb 
modifies the noun for the other child. 

iOne of Shakspere's characters says : " If is your only 
peacemaker. Much virtue in if." 

VERBS 171 

For such reasons we might always speak of 
the verb as a modifier of its subject. But we 
rarely do so, for the important fact about the 
verb is that it asserts. We save the term 
"modifier" for words like beautiful, which 
cannot assert, but nevertheless can change the 
meaning of the words to which they are joined. 
Beautiful horse is a very different idea from 
horse, but beautiful horse is only a name, not 
an assertion. 

306. Analysis Exercise. Select the verbs. 

1. Nail the shoe on. 2. The nail is lost. 3. The 
shoe is loose. 4. Blacksmiths shoe horses. 5. Shoe 
the colt. 6. The boy whittled a shingle. 7. The 
carpenter shingled the roof. 8. The mountain has a 
cap of clouds. 9. Clouds cap the mountain. 10. The 
hunter carries a knife. 11. He knifes the wounded 
deer. 12. Our men went into battle. 13. Heroes battle 
for justice. 14. Take your hoe. 15. Hoe your row. 
16. The raccoon is in that tree. 17. The dog treed 
him. 18. Water the flowers with fresh water. 19. Re- 
turn their fire as soon as they fire. 20. Chimneys 
smoke too much in Chicago, St. Louis, and Pittsburg. 
21. The smoke hurts people's lungs. 22. They stoned 
Stephen to death. 23. Mobs use cobble-stones as wea- 
pons. 24. They mobbed the house. 25. Use a horse- 
whip on the bully. 26. Horsewhip him. 27. The 
light lights the sailor. 28. Stars blossom in heaven. 
29. Blossoms star the meadow. 30. Our train ran at 
forty miles an hour. 31. It made a quick run. 32. We 


walk our horses here. 33. Their pace is no faster than 
a walk. 34. The guide guided us well. 35. We turned 
the turn of the road so sharply that my aunt said it gave 
her a "turn." 36. Fight the fight bravely. 37. That 
catcher makes a far throw ; he throws the ball to the 
center field. 38. We laugh a laugh. 39. We taste a 
taste. 40. We wish a wish. 

307. Action verbs and link-verbs. 1 Most 
verbs assert action, or what seems like action : 
burns, does, runs, thinks. This is because so 
many of the statements that men care to make 
are about things in action. A dead wasp may 
lie unnoticed, but a wasp in action arouses 
us to express opinions. 

But a verb like is or seems expresses no 
action. In a sentence like John is a hero, is 
shows merely that the speaker takes the 
responsibility of calling John a hero. Is 
merely asserts ; it is purely an asserter ; it 
may be called the pure verb. Often is is 
called the pure link-verb, because it joins two 
words like John and hero. Other forms of this 
verb are am, are, was, were. 

Seems, appears, looks, tastes, becomes are often 
used as link-verbs, as in John seems a hero. 
But these are not pure verbs, for they mean 

1 To the Teacher. Link-verb is Sweet's term. It 
includes more than copula. 

VERBS 173 

more than is. Thus, appears means is in 

308. Transitive verbs. Most actions affect 
somebody or something. If the shoe pinches, 
it pinches somebody. If a verb can represent 
its subject as acting on something, it is called 
transitive. In Debt kills men, debt acts on men. 

309. Intransitive verbs. Some actions do not 
seem to fall on anything. A star merely 
twinkles; it does not twinkle anything. If 
a verb cannot represent its subject as acting 
on anything, it is an intransitive verb. 1 All 
link-verbs are of course intransitive. 

310. Many verbs are sometimes transitive, 
sometimes intransitive. Runs takes an object 
in The company runs two trains, but does not 
in The train runs. 

Sometimes a verb is essentially transitive, 
even though no object is expressed. In Debt 
kills, kills is essentially transitive, though we 
do not learn whom debt kills. 2 

1 Remember that we are speaking of verbs proper, which 
are single words. 

2 To the Teacher. A verb is essentially transitive to 
the speaker if he feels it as such. A verb that is logically 
transitive is often felt by the speaker as intransitive. The 
distinction is never worth quarreling over. 


311. Analysis Exercise. Select each verb, 
and tell whether it is transitive or intransitive. 

1. The kite flies. 2. The Chinese boy flies a kite. 
3. The cruiser flies the American flag. 4. The tree fell. 
5. The woodman felled the tree. 6. The king marched 
up the hill. 7. The king marched his men down. 
8. March up. 9. March yourself up. 10. Our side won 
the game. 11. Our side won [310]. 12. The man who 
catches a fish still fishes. 13. The fisherman fished a 
dead branch up. II. The coward dies more than once. 
15. The dyer dyes garments. 16. Bet two to one 
against the angry man. 17. I shall not want [310]. 
18. Work while you work. 19. The drayman worked 
his horse too hard. 20. The muscles of his face 
worked. 21. Begin work sharply, and quit it sharply. 
22. Begin ! [310]. 23. The chance of a lifetime conies to 
every man. 21. The waves break. 25. The rocks break 
them. 26. Fear not! [310]. 27. Hope cheers [310]. 
28. Every little helps. 29. Hurry up ! 30. Hurry this 



312. Noun defined. Noun means "name." 
A noun is a single word used as a name, as 
John, horse, gold. By noun we usually mean 
a fixed name. Some names are not fixed : 
pronouns, like I and you, are names that 
change their meaning with every person, and 
are therefore a kind of variable noun. 

There are so many things in the world 
that each cannot have its own name. We 
cannot give every individual tree a word to 
itself. There are billions of trees in America, 
and only a quarter of a million words in 
English. Such words as tree, evergreen, pine 
signify classes of objects, and are called class- 
names. Probably there is no one thing in the 
world which does not have to share its name 
with something else. We call a certain city 
London, but there are several Londons. We 
may call a certain man John, but there are 
many Johns. Still we call such words as 



London and John individual-names, and we 
write them with capitals to show the fact. 

313. Examples of nouns. We have names 
for things that we can touch, taste, see, as 
apple. We have also names for things that 
we never perceive with our senses. Some 
nouns, like gnome and fairy, name things that 
are unreal. Others name unseen things which 
are real — things like goodness, hope, courage. 
We see good men, hopeful men, courageous 
men ; we see beautiful roses and lovely morn- 
ings ; but it is only with our mind's eye that 
we see goodness, hope, courage, beauty, loveli- 

Note the following nouns : 

animal, biped, man, Frenchman. 

dog, hound, deerhound, Ponto. 

boy, schoolboy, student, Charles. 

community, city, Boston. 

Lincoln, son, husband, father, president, martyr. 

traits, goodness, courage, kindness, mercy. 

language, English, Latin, German. 

tree, death, growth, decay. 

fruit, apple, greening. 

apple, parts, core, seeds, flesh, juice, blossom, stripes. 

apple, color, sweetness, juiciness, weight, size. 

apple, windfall, grower, seller. 

ocean, lake, river, Thames. 

jsroujsrs 177 

314. Practise Exercise. Apply several 
names (single nouns) to each of the following : 
George Washington ; Julius Caesar; a canary; 
a rifle. 

315. The noun as subject. We use nouns 
chiefly as the subjects of sentences. This is 
because nouns are the signs of things in which 
we are interested, and wish to talk about. 

316. The predicate noun. When we say Tom 
is a hero, we show our opinion that Tom de- 
serves a new name ; we class him among heroes. 
In Tom is a hero, the new idea lies chiefly in 
the noun hero. Is a hero is the whole predi- 
cate. Is affirms ; hero is the new name 
affirmed. The verb is affirms, but it lacks 
all other meaning. We usually clip it short, 
as in Tom's a hero. 

A predicate noun follows a link-verb, as a 
new name asserted of the subject. 

The predicate-noun sentence is a very com- 
mon one. A great deal of our talk consists 
in telling what we think things to be or not 
to be. The predicate nouns in the following 
are in italics : 

"See that thing down the street!" 
"What is it?" 



"It's a icagon." 

"No, it's a carriage." 

"It isn't a carriage or a wagon either; it sends up 

"Maybe it's a fire-engine" 

"No, it's too small." 

"It's in plain sight now. Your wagon is an auto- 

"So it is. It's a beauty, too." 

" Well, I don't think so. Automobiles seem to me 

317. Analysis Exercise. Select the sub- 
ject nouns and the predicate nouns. 

1. Good bargains are pickpockets. 2. A brave re- 
treat is a brave exploit. 3. John seems a gentleman. 
4. John is a jolly good fellow. 5. Molehills often 
appear mountains. 6. A picked goose is a biped with- 
out feathers. 7. Man is a biped without feathers. 8. A 
word spoken is an arrow let fly. 9. Hotspur seemed a 
feathered Mercury. 10. Adam was a gardener. 11. Acts 
become habits. 12. Saving is getting. 13. Promise is 
debt. 14. The shower became a storm. 15. The habit 
grew T to be a tyrant. 1 

318. The direct object. Suppose that you 
knew a boy named John, and that you knew 
also his sister. You had always thought John 

1 Formerly it was correct to say, John grew a man. Now 
it is necessary to insert to be after the verb, as in John 
grew to be a man. 

NOUNS 179 

kind to his sister, till one day you saw John 
lift his fist and bring it down violently on 
her shoulder, so that she cried out with pain. 
You have seen these two persons in a new 
relation to each other, and John's new relation 
to his sister is a very evil one. He stands in 
the relation of a blow-giver to his sister. You 
say to yourself, with surprise, John struck his 

The noun sister is called the object of the 
verb struck. John and sister name two persons 
that are brought into the relation of active 
subject and direct object. 

The direct object of a verb names the person 
or thing on whom or on which the subject 
acts directly. 

319. The indirect object. In a sentence like 
The queen gave Solomon a gift, the queen is 
said to act directly on the gift, because she 
gives it, and indirectly on Solomon, because 
she gives it to him. Solomon is therefore called 
the indirect object of the verb. 

The indirect object of a verb names the per- 
son or thing to whom or to which something 
is given, refused, told, or sent. It stands 
directly after the verb. 


320. The name produced. In such a sentence 
as I call John a hero, the direct object of call 
is John. But after the direct object an ad- 
ditional name for John is given, to complete 
the sense of John and call. This name seems 
produced by the verb, and Ave may call it the 
produced name or the name produced. 1 

1. They named the prince Edward, 2. Simon he sur- 
named Peter. 3. They chose Williams umpire. 4. They 
crowned the baby queen. 5. They elected Washington 
president. 6. This habit made him a wreck. 7. His 
courage made the undertaking a success. 

The name produced follows the direct object 
of a verb of naming, making, or choosing. 

321. Analysis Exercise. Select the ob- 
jects. Tell of each whether it is a direct 
object or an indirect object. Select also the 
names produced. 

1 To the Teacher. Such a construction in an inflected 
language is easily disposed of ; we take refuge in purely 
formal terms like "two accusatives." But in English this 
construction almost defies description. We have various 
terms like object complement, objective complement, predi- 
cate objective, and factitive objective, but every one of 
them would apply as well to the direct object of a verb 
of making or naming. If the instructor wishes to use the 
term complement, perhaps he may like the term the object's 
complement, which could be explained as meaning a com- 
pleter of both the verb and its object. But all such terms 
take us a long way from the psychology of the situation, 

NOUNS 181 

1. That boy is sawing oats. 2. Let us call the dog 
"Jupiter." 3. Working makes a workman. 4. Work- 
ing makes a man a workman. 5. They chose Williams 
umpire and gave Williams a mask. 6. Scientists 
call the raccoon a bear. 7. Take the teacher a book. 
8. Give the bully a drubbing. 9. Make the bully a 

322. The appositive noun. If a given noun 
does not seem to name a thing clearly enough, 
we may put beside it another noun denoting 
the same thing. In Vesuvius, the volcano, we 
add the second noun to explain the first. 
Many names of persons were formed in this 
way. John, the baker, finally became the 
proper name John Baker. Simon, weaver, 
became Simon Weaver. Baker and weaver 
lost their first meaning and became family 

A noun placed beside another noun to ex- 
plain it is called an appositive. 

In such expressions as the book of Grenesis, 
the town of Boston, of is merely a sign of the 
appositive construction. 

In many cases the two nouns explain each 
other. In Count Tolstoi both words are apposi- 
tives to each other. But usually the second 
noun is the true explainer, as in Lincoln, the 


323. Analysis Exercise. Select the ap- 

1. John, my brother, is at school. 2. My brother 
John is at school. 3. That rascal, Fido, has brought 
a fish into the parlor. 4. Og, king of Bashan, was a 
giant. 5. Old King Cole was a merry old soul. G. Saul, 
a citizen of Tarsus, confronted the Roman rulers calmly. 
7. Count Tolstoi was exiled from Russia. 8. Columbia, 
the gem of the ocean, is said to be the home of the 
brave and the free. 9. Lincoln, a rail- splitter, and Clay, 
a mill-boy, became great statesmen. 

324. The genitive noun. The genitive noun 
is a form of the noun 1 ending in -'* or -s\ as 
printer s, ladies'. In such a phrase as printer's 
ink, printers tells what kind of ink, what 
genus of ink. The genitive always explains 
another noun, as in printer s ink, Johns hat. 
It usually does this by telling " whose." 

Generally the genitive stands before the 
noun it explains, but it may be used as a 
predicate noun, as in This hat is John's. It 
is then called a predicate genitive. 

A singular genitive ends in -s. A plural 
genitive usually ends in -s\ My friend's 
house names a house belonging to one friend. 
My friends' house names a house belonging 

1 The sign (') is called the apostrophe. We say apos- 
trophe, -s, and -s, apostrophe. 

NOUNS' 183 

to more than one friend. The house of my 
friends names a house belonging to more than 
one friend, but friends is not a genitive. 

When you are writing a composition and 
are in doubt whether to use an apostrophe 
or not, consult the teacher. Later (526) we 
shall study the genitive more fully. 

325. The vocative noun. We have already 
seen (276) that a noun may be used vocatively, 
to show the person spoken to, as in John, come 
here. A vocative is neither the subject nor 
the object of any verb. It is an independent 
element of its sentence. 

326. Summary of noun constructions. We 

have now seen that a noun may have any 
one of seven chief constructions, or relations 
to other words in the sentence. It may be : 

1. Subject : John is a hero. 

2. Predicate noun : John is a hero. 

3. Object : We crowned the baby. 

4. Name produced : We crowned the baby queen. 

5. Indirect object : We gave the baby a doll. 

6. Appositive : Grant, the Union general, fought Lee. 

7. Genitive : Grant, Lee's enemy, was once his school- 

In two of these constructions (6 and 7), 
nouns are related to each other without the 


help of the verb. The appositive and the geni- 
tive are said to modify their nouns. 

In five of these constructions (1, 2, 3, 4, 5), 
nouns are brought into relation to each other 
by means of a verb. And while we speak of 
the subject of the verb, the object of the verb, 
the noun after a link-verb, and the name pro- 
duced by the verb, we must not forget that 
we are talking of real relations between real 

327. Let us now proceed to analyze a few 
entire sentences consisting of only nouns and 
verbs. We state : 

1. The complete subject and the complete predicate. 

2. The simple subject, and its genitive or appositive 

3. The verb. 

4. The predicate noun, the direct object, the indirect 
object, or the name produced. 1 

1 To the Teacher. These last elements are often called 
" complements" of the verb. The tempting simplicity of 
such a term as complement of the verb proves on inspection 
to be a mechanical simplicity. The predicate noun com- 
plements the subject more than it does the verb. The 
produced name complements the object more than it does 
the verb. 

Every possible effort should be made to prevent analysis 
from being mechanical, dead. If the teacher has been in 
the habit of using complement in a living way, with plenty 

NOUNS 185 

Such a sentence as John's father gave John 
books would be analyzed as follows : 

1. The complete subject is John's father, and the 
complete predicate is gave John books. 

2. The simple subject is father. Father is explained 
by the genitive John's. 

3. The verb is gave. 

4. The direct object of gave is the noun books. The 
indirect object of gave is John. 

Such a sentence as Germany made William 
emperor would be analyzed as follows : 

1. The complete subject is Germany; the complete 
predicate is made William emperor. 

2. The simple subject is the same as the complete 

3. The verb is made. 

4. The direct object of made is William. The name 
produced is emperor. 

328. Analysis Exercise. Analyze the 
following sentences. 

1. Birds fly. 2. Words fly. 3. Worry kills men. 
4. Worry makes men slaves. 5. Drunkards make them- 
selves slaves. 6. Girls like chocolates. 7. Boys prefer 

of explanation and modification, why, he had better con- 
tinue to use it. No system of nomenclature is half so 
important as the teacher's own extemporaneous terms, 
springing from that play of mind which is essential in all 
good teaching. It is only to be remembered that a sentence 
is a living thing, and that all analysis is, in a way, an 
insult to it. See Chapter X. 


guns. 8. Success pleases students. 9. Success makes 
boys students. 10. Perseverance conquers difficulties. 
11. Courage makes mountains molehills. 12. Careless- 
ness ruins lives. 13. Teachers' patience encourages 
students. 14. Tigers are cats. 15. Kittens become cats. 
16. Acts become habits. 17. Give students praise. 
18. Give bullies poundings. 19. Thrift brings men 
riches. 20. Unthrift makes men paupers. 21. Jones, 
grocer, sells groceries. 22. Minds think thoughts. 
23. Spendthrifts are fortune's fools. 24. Misers are 
fortune's fools. 25. Men's brains are men's riches. 
26. Men's characters are men's riches. 27. Women's 
jewels are children. 28. Men's treasures are children. 
29. Sons' wickedness breaks parents' hearts. 30. Cats 
may watch kings. 

One kind of noun, the verbal noun, is so 
peculiar that we must give it a separate chap- 
ter. This will be the next chapter. 



329. Examine four sentences: 

1. Hunting is fun. 

2. Hunting rabbits is fun. 

3. I like hunting. 

4. I like hunting rabbits. 

In all these sentences hunting is a noun ; it 
names a certain sport. But this noun takes an 
object. Hunting rabbits is the full name of the 
sport mentioned, and rabbits is the object of 

A noun which can take an object is called a 
transitive verbal noun. 

330. Examine four other sentences : 

1. To hunt is fun. 

2. To hunt rabbits is fun. 

3. I like to hunt. 

4. I like to hunt rabbits. 

Here to hunt is used exactly like hunting, 
in the other sentences. So we call to hunt 
another verbal noun. 



331. In strictness the real verbal noun is 
hunt ; to is not a part of it. To is only the 
sign of the verbal noun — a sign that hunt is to 
be taken as a noun, not as a verb. In / like 
to hunt, the verb is like. 

To came to be the sign of the verbal noun 
in the following way : it was first used after 
intransitive verbs like go. I go to the hunt 
shows that I go to a certain place. I go to hunt 
shows that I go in order to engage in a cer- 
tain sport. The sport is the thing for which 
I go. So to hunt comes to show the speaker's 
purpose. Now it is only natural that after 
a transitive verb such as hate or like we 
should still keep the to, and say / like to hunt, 
even though to ceases to mean either towards 
or for. 

332. After certain verbs we omit the to. 
For example, we say John does go, which at 
bottom means, John does the act of going. The 
word go is still a noun, the name of an action, 
and is the object of does. 

The verbs after which we may either omit or 
keep to are dare, help, and please. We say : 
dare to go or dare go ; help to go or help go ; 
please to go or please go. 


We always omit to after may, might; can, 
could; shall, should; do, did ; must and would. 

We almost always omit to after will, as in 
John will go, which foretells John's future act. 
But after wills we add to, as in John wills to go, 
and in like fashion we may say, Men will to 
do right or wrong. 

333. When the to is dropped, it is often hard 
to understand the construction of the verbal 
noun. We can see that in John wills to go, 
John does something to the idea of going. He 
wills it; he approves it ; he " adopts" it. And 
in John will go, go is still the object of will, if 
we mean John's determination. 

But John will go does not always mean the 
same as John wills to go. John will go may 
simply mean that John is going, whether he 
wants to go or not. In Johrfll go, all the de- 
termination has faded out of will. It merely 
asserts that John is going to do something ; we 
do not know what the something is till we 
reach the verbal noun go. 

The verbs may and might, can and could, 
shall and should, will and ivould, do and did, 
must and ought are completed by verbal nouns 
which were once their direct objects. 


334. The verbal noun is a noun which, like 
hunting or [to] hunt, retains some verbal force. 
Transitive verbal nouns can take an object 
(329), and any verbal noun may be modified by 
an adverb, as in hunting around, or hunting 
diligently, or to hunt here. 

335. Analysis Exercise. Select the verbal 

1. Tabby likes to hunt squirrels. 2. My sister hates 
hunting. 3. Hunting squirrels is Tabby's pet sport. 
4. To carry coals to Newcastle is poor policy. 5. I dare 
do all that is honest. 6. He had to eat his words. 
7. Seeing correctly is hard. 8. Rebuking that boy makes 
me sad. 9. I hate to scold. 10. Doing your best brings 
success. 11. I love to read stories of war. 12. I hate 
to think of it. 13. The ship's being in the water does 
not hurt the ship. 14. But the water's being in the 
ship does. 15. Do you mind my saying so? 16. Do you 
like his going there ? 

336. Analysis Exercise. Tell of each 
verbal noun in 335 whether it is a subject or an 

337. Analysis Exercise. Turn to 266, 
and select the verbal nouns that are used as 
thought subjects, in such sentences as It is easy 
to say so. 


338. Analysis Exercise. Point out verbal 
nouns that are used as predicate nouns (316) : 

1. Seeing is believing. 2. To hear is to obey. 3. To 
hesitate is to fail. 4. To say more is sometimes to say 
less. 5. Saving is getting. 6. Graduating is only com- 

339. Analysis Exercise. Select the verbal 
nouns and tell what verbs they complete. 

1. I shall go. 2. It may rain. 3. I dare do all that 
may become a man. 4. I ought to go. 5. We must 
succeed. 6. We shan't fail. 7. I won't believe any bad 
thing about him. 8. I shall miss my train if I do not 
hurry. 9. I dare you to go. 10. Do not fear. 11. We 
might fail. 12. We cannot fail. 13. Let go. 

340. The object's action. In The driver com- 
pelled his horse to move, the direct object of 
compelled is horse; the verbal noun to move 
expresses the object's action. A verbal noun 
may follow an object to express the object's 

341. Analysis Exercise. Select the verbal 
nouns that name the object's action. 

1. Help John to win. 2. Make John hurry. 3. We 
expect the governor to act. 4. Yon cannot make the boy 
fear. 5. Do yon like a friend to desert you ? 6. Do you 
enjoy seeing animals suffer? 7. Can you let a rabbit run 
away ? 8. You make the teacher smile. 9. That deed 


made the doer blush. 10. God causes the earth to blos- 
som. 11. A good son makes his father rejoice. 12. Urge 
the captain to let my chum enlist. 13. Hope makes 
men try. 14. Force the bully to quit. 15. Allow the 
flower to stay on its stalk. 16. Let your hearts be glad. 
17. To see such misfortune makes your heart ache. 

342. Sometimes verbal nouns are attached 
directly to nouns, as in a house to let. They 
then become modifiers of nouns, explaining 

343. Analysis Exercise. Point out verbal 
nouns used as explainers of other nouns. 

1. It was a sight to remember. 2. There are lessons 
to learn. 3. There is bread to bake, and there are rooms 
to sweep. 4. Capacity to learn is different from power 
to do. 5. There are lonely hearts to cherish. 



344. Life is short, and we have to do our 
work without many words. The clerk in a 
great city-store must sell his goods without 
knowing the names of all his customers. The 
conductor must do business with thousands of 
passengers whose names he can never know. 
Every one of us has to see numerous objects 
the names of which are unknown to us. And 
even when we know the real name of a thing, 
it is tedious to repeat it over and over in the 
course of a conversation. 

So men have invented certain names that will 
fit any person or thing for the moment. Such 
words as Z, you, it, this, and that are a kind of 
universal name. They will serve when we do 
not know the true name, or when we have men- 
tioned it once and do not care to repeat it. 
Such words are called pronouns, and are really 
a kind of noun. 

1 To the Teacher. See 535, footnote. 
o 193 


Pronouns are the most general kind of name, 
and depend on the circumstances of the sen- 
tence for their meaning. 

345. The chief pronouns are : J, you, he, she, 
we, they ; me, him, her, its, them; this, that, these, 
those ; mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs ; myself, 
yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, your- 
selves, themselves ; who, ivhom, ivhoever, ivhomever, 
which, what. Some of these words are used as 
subjects, some as objects, some as either subjects 
or objects. 1 

346. Often we mention a person or thing by 
name in our first remark, and then refer to it 
by pronouns in later statements. We call John 
a good student, and then say that he studies 
hard, or that he deserves honor. In such a case 
we say that John is the noun of the pronoun 
he; or, that John is the antecedent of he, "ante- 
cedent" meaning the word that "went before." 

347. Analysis Exercise. Point out the 
antecedents of the italic pronouns. 

1. Defoe was a novelist. He wrote Robinson Crusoe. 
2. Stevenson wrote Treasure Island. He wrote it when 

1 Several are also used as adjectives, as we shall see in a 
later chapter. ' 


he was a sick man, but it does not sound like the work of 
a sick man. 3. Stephenson invented the locomotive. This 
was a great gift to the world. 4. The man who makes 
two blades of wheat grow where there was only one does 
some good. 5. The money which is saved is earned. 
6. God loves the man whom he afflicts. 7. A man should 
criticize himself more than he criticizes anybody else. 
8. We make ourselves what we are. 9. The Romans con- 
quered the world ; they stained every land and sea with 
their own blood. 10. Florence JSTightingale was a famous 
nurse in the war between England and Russia ; she was 
called an angel of mercy. 

348. Some pronouns can refer to a whole 
statement. If you tell me John is sick, and 
say, that is too bad, or it is too bad, the pro- 
noun that or it refers to the whole remark. 
In this way the pronoun which sometimes refers 
to a whole clause for its antecedent, as in Torn 
stole a horse, which was wicked. This construc- 
tion is not always a good one. If the sentence 
had read, Tom stole a horse, which was vicious, 
there would be nothing to tell us whether the 
stealing was vicious or the horse was vicious. 

349. We often use it without an antecedent. 
We say It rains, or He walked it all the way. 
"Grant said, I will fight it out on this line if it 
takes all summer. In such cases it is an indefi- 
nite subject or object, :- ;.,-.;: : : ;. ■_■ : ; 


350. A pronoun should never be far away from 
its antecedent. If it is too far away, the reader 
may misunderstand you. He may think the 
pronoun refers to a different person or thing 
from what you meant. You can hardly tell what 
it means in the following sentence ; it might 
mean medicine, or rheumatism, or smallpox. 

We have been having the so-called smallpox in our 
part of the county. This has been through my family. 
I want to say that I was taking your Sarsaparilla and 
Dandelion for rheumatism and I have never taken it, 
and will guarantee that if the people will take it as a 
preventive they will never take it. 

In the following sentence which means a tiger, 
but it seems at first to mean a river. 

Two boys reported killing a tiger on an island in the 
Kankakee River which is believed to have escaped from 
a circus. 

351. Practise Exercise. Change the fol- 
lowing sentences so as to bring the italic pro- 
nouns nearer to their antecedents. 

1. A bullet was found in a wall which was flattened 
out by the force of the shot. 2. It was the gentleman in 
the automobile who wore a high hat. 3. There was a 
man on the other side of the platform that looked red and 
uncomfortable. 4. There was something familiar about 
the place where we at last landed from the boat, which 
made us think we had been there before. 5, Mr, Winkle 


ran down-stairs to admit the gentleman's wife who was 
sleeping peacefully on the sofa waiting for her to ring 
the bell. 

352. Subject forms. Certain pronouns are 
used as subjects, but not as objects. These are 
as follows : I, he, she, we, they, who, whoever. 

Already (165-180) we have received drill in 
using all these forms except two. We have 
especially learned that a compound subject 
must consist wholly of subject forms. We can 
say He and i~, but not him and I, or he and me. 

In John was the first man whom we stopped, 
whom is the object of stopped. Careful speakers 
would not say who we stopped. 

In We stopped whoever came, whoever is called 
the subject of came. Then we say that the 
object of stopped is the whole clause whoever 
came. As a matter of fact, whoever is just as 
much the object of stopped as it is the subject 
of came. But we say whoever came, not whom- 
ever came. 

After is and was we use the subject pronouns, 
/, he, she, we, they, who. 

It's /. 

It's they. 

It's he. 

It's who ? 

It's she. 

I thought it was he. 

It's we. 

I fear it's / whom you mean. 


So the subject pronouns and the predicate 
pronouns are the same. We may call I, he, 
she, we, they, who, the six subject-and-predicate 

For it's me, see 170. 

In a sentence like Wlio did it ? the subject is 
who. But such sentences as Who is it? mean 
the same as It is who? and we must call who 
standing before is a predicate pronoun. In 
such a sentence as I asked who he was, he is the 
subject of tvas, and ivho is the predicate pronoun. 

353. Object forms. The following forms are 
used as direct and indirect objects, but not as 
subjects : me, him, her, us, them; whom, whom- 

These have already been discussed in 165-180 
and in 352. 

354. Common forms. A great many pronouns 
can be either subjects, objects, or predicate pro- 
nouns. We can say You are, or It is you, or 
John asked you, and you does not change its 
form, any more than a noun would. Forms 
that can be used as subjects, objects, or predi- 
cate pronouns are called common forms. The 
chief common forms are as follows : you, it, this, 
that, these, those, which, what. 


355. Analysis Exercise. Examine the 
construction of each italic pronoun, and say 
whether it is a subject, an object, an indirect 
object, or a predicate pronoun. 

1. Is it I that you mean? 2. That is he of whom I 
spoke. 3. That's the man whom I meant. 4. They gave 
him a bowl and a pewter spoon. 5. Please give me it. 
6. Don't you believe that. 7. This will do. 8. Make this 
your home. 9. Please get us some paper. 10. Please let 
him and me go. 11. They have invited them and me. 
12. He is "it" ! 13. Send us him for an nmpire. 11. Help 
me to catch him. 15. Let's go. [Never say " Let's us."] 
16. He who tries will succeed. 17. What do you think? 
18. That seems to be a mistake. 19. Make that your first 
business. 20. Make that x some sort of a cover. 21. Sev- 
eral were successful. 22. Each has his task. 23. Few 
can bear success without becoming vain. 24. Many 
think that riches make a man happy. 25. The porridge 
looks good; I should like some. 26. Four are enough. 
27. Give me the student who does not pretend to know 
more than he does know. 28. Who is that tall man? 
29. Didn't you ask me who that man was ? 

356. Practise Exercise. Insert in each 
blank who or whom, according to the practise of 
careful speakers. 

1. did you see? 2. is it? 3. do you 

say ? 4. do you think he is ? 5. shall we ask ? 

6. shall our guests be? 7. do you prefer? 

8. did you secure? 9. was it you secured? 

1 That means a box, here. 


10. are the prize-winners? 11. did they elect 

president? 12. was chosen president? 13. 

shall we admit? 14. shall we refuse ? 15. is 

it that picks the flowers ? 16. " has lain in my bed ? " 

said the big bear. 17. " can help sickness? " quoth 

the drunken man. 18. are you helping, in this con- 
cert? 19. can number the stars? 20. is who? 

21. has hurt ? 22. do you think I am? 

23. did you mean ? 24. shall I say called ? 

[Here Who is correct.] 

357. Personal pronouns. In grammar, person 
means a distinction of the speaker, the person 
spoken to, and the person or thing spoken of. 
The speaker is the first person ; the person 
spoken to is the second person ; the person (or 
thing) spoken of is the third person. It seems 
curious to speak of a thing as the third " per- 
son," but that is what grammar does. 

The personal pronouns are : (1) J, me, we, 
us; (2) you; (3) it, he, him, she, her, they, 

I, me, we, us are said to show the first person. 
You is said to show the second person. It, he, 
him, she, her, they, them are said to show the 
third person. 

358. Self-pronouns. The self -pronouns are 
myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, 
themselves. Study the spelling of these -words. 


The self-pronouns are often used as direct or 
indirect objects. He hurt himself. They bought 
themselves trumpets. The object here names the 
same person as the subject, you see. When 
used as objects, the self-pronouns are said to be 
reflexive, or " turning back." 

The self-pronouns are often used as apposi- 
tives to nouns or personal pronouns, as in I my- 
self, the men themselves. They are then emphatic. 

The self-pronouns are like the personal in 
naming the first, second, and third persons, but 
they are not often used alone as subjects or ob- 
jects. We should say John and I went, not 
John and myself went. It is not more modest 
to say myself than /or me. 

359. Practise Exercise. Study the fol- 
lowing sentences so that you can repeat each 
after hearing the first word. 

1. Father, mother, and I went to New York. 2. They 
invited him, you, and me. 3. May my brother and I 
study together? 4. Father thinks it best for brother 
and me not to study together. 5. There were Sarah, 
Francis, Frances, and I. 

360. Analysis Exercise. Give the con- 
struction of each italic pronoun ; that is, say 
whether it is an appositive, an object, or an in- 
direct object. 


1. Love thyself last. 2. God helps them that help 
themselves. 3. We ourselves are our own worst enemies. 
4. You wrong yourself to have an itching palm. 5. If 
you would have a thing well done, [you] do it yourself 
6. He will himself show you the way. 7. Quit yourselves 
like men. 8. You, he, and I myself will attempt it. 
9. Get yourselves books. 10. We must show ourselves 
brave under these circumstances. 

361. The demonstratives as pronouns. The 
simplest way of naming a thing for the moment 
is to call it this. This names something near 
by, that something farther away. This, that, 
these, those are called demonstratives, or words 
that point out, and are often used as pronouns. 

362. Possessive pronouns. A possessive pro- 
noun is the most general name of a thing pos- 
sessed. It may be used as a subject or an 
object, as in Yours is the best; I will take yours. 
The pronouns oftenest so used are : mine, ours, 
yours, theirs, his, hers. 1 Notice that these words 
have no apostrophe. 

The words my, our, your, their are adjectives 
rather than pronouns (375). They cannot be 
used as subjects or objects. 

363. The numerals as pronouns. The numer- 
als express definite number. First, second, third, 

1 Avoid the vulgar forms his'n and her'n. 


etc., are called ordinal numerals, or simply ordi- 
nals, because they name things in their order. 
The ordinals are generally adjectives, as in the 
first house; but they may stand as subjects or 
objects, as in The first is the best; I should like 
the first. When so used they are called pro- 
nouns ; remember that a pronoun is merely a 
kind of noun that depends on the circumstances 
of the sentence for its meaning. One, two, three, 
etc., are called cardinals, or principal numbers. 
These are often pronouns, as in Two of us will 

364. The indefinites as pronouns. There is a 
group of words, like all and others, that ex- 
press number or quantity less definitely than 
the numerals do. You may say that such a 
word as all is pretty definite, and so it is unless 
you compare it with a given number (like 364). 
Very likely a better term than indefinites will 
some day be found. Meantime we mean by 
indefinites such words as others, none, each 
other, one another, all, many, few, several, much, 
some, each, every, certain. All these words 
except certain and every can be used as sub- 
jects or objects, and when so used are pro- 


Examples : 

(1) None is too old to learn. (2) Many are called, 
but few are chosen. (3) Much is forgiven. (4) Con- 
sider each other, you two lads. (5) Consider one another, 
you four lads. 

365. The interrogatives as pronouns. The in- 

terrogatives are who? ivhom? which? what? 
They are used in asking questions. Who and 
ivhom are always pronouns ; which and what are 
sometimes adjectives (378). 

366. Direct and indirect questions. Note two 
sentences : 

1. We asked, " Who is that man?" 

2. We asked who that man was. 

A direct question gives the speaker's exact 
words, and uses quotation marks and a question 
mark. An indirect question gives the substance 
of the speaker's words, uses no quotation marks, 
and ends with a period. 

In both the sentences given above, the verb 
ashed takes the entire question for its object. 
The question after a verb of asking is of course 
a dependent clause (230). 

If the sentence should read We ashed him, 
" Who is that man ? " ashed would seem to have 
two objects — him and the question. One 

pronouns 205 

would name the person asked, the other the 
thing inquired of him. 

367. Relative pronouns and clauses. Who, 
whom, which, what, that, whoever, whomever, what- 
ever are often used as subjects or objects, even 
though not in questions. They are then called 
relative pronouns, and are said to begin relative 

Examples : 

1. A man who works may eat. 

2. The man whom you see is a German. 

3. The man that you see is a German. 

4. The task which is hard becomes easy. 

5. I don't quite understand what you say. 

6. Whoever works may eat. 

7. Whatever is saved is earned. 

8. Ask whomever you like. 

The first four sentences contain relative 
clauses begun by who, whom, which, that. The 
clause who works has who for a subject. The 
clause whom you see has you for a subject and 
whom for an object. The clause that you see 
has you for a subject and that for an object. 
The clause ivhieh is hard has which for a sub- 

But look again at the first four sentences. 
Why are the relative clauses there ? They are 


there to tell what kind of man or thing is spoken 
of. The first sentence says that a certain kind 
of man may eat. That kind is a man who 
works. Who works has a subject and a predicate, 
but it is an extremely dependent statement ; 
it means nothing when taken away from the 
noun it'describes. A man ivho ivorks is- simply 
an emphatic way of saying "a working man." 

A relative clause usually modifies a noun. 

In sentences 5, 6, 7, 8 two relative clauses are 
used as subjects, and two as objects. Explain 



368. We have seen that a noun may be modi- 
fied by another noun, as in Lincoln, the presi- 
dent, or in printer s ink. But the most common 
modifiers of nouns are adjectives, such as the, 
beautiful, every. Such modifiers join very 
closely to their nouns. 

An adjective is a word whose chief office is 
to stand before a noun to assist in making 
a more definite name. 

369. Many words are either adjectives or 
nouns, according as they are used. Take for 
example red, white, good. In red sky, white egg, 
good school, these words are — what ? In the 
red of the sky, the white of an egg, the good of 
going to school, they are — what ? 

370. Analysis Exercise. Point out the 
adjectives, and the nouns they modify, in the 
following phrases. 

1. The blueness of the blue sky. 2. The charm of 
the charming song. 3. The reddening of the red rose. 



4. The bravery of the brave dog. 5. The charity of the 
charitable man. 6. The glory of the glorious morning. 
7. The whiteness of the white snow. 8. The mercy of 
the merciful man. 9. The joyful man's joy. 10. The 
cowardly man's cowardice. 11. The fearful man's fear. 
12. The jolly boy's jollity. 13. The grandeur of the 
grand mountain. 

371. Practise Exercise. What adjec- 
tives can you think of that are like the follow- 
ing nouns? 

Courage, might, sweetness, hope, gratitude, thanks, 
spite, love, timidity, severity, pity, slyness, health, haste, 
speed, softness, ease, pain, merriment, audacity, inferi- 
ority, superiority, laxity, gravity, mystery, weight, im- 
mensity, change, force, cruelty, honor, fury, malice, 
intricacy, agreeableness, brilliancy, history, publicity, 
emphasis, antiquity. 

372. Analysis Exercise. Point out the 
adjectives in the following phrases. 

1. This tree. 2. That tree. 3. These trees. 4. Those 
trees. 5. Yonder tree. 6. The tree. 7. A tree. 8. An 
elm. 9. One tree. 10. Seven trees. 11. The first tree. 
12. The seventh tree. 13. Few trees. 14. Several trees. 
15. Many trees. 16. All trees. 17. Some trees. 18. Each 
tree. 19. Every tree. 20. Certain trees. 21. Other 
trees. 22. Both trees. 23. The other tree. 24. Both the 
trees. 25. What tree? 26. Whose tree? 27. Which- 
ever tree. 28. Whatever tree. 29. My tree. 30. Your 
tree. 31. His tree. 32. Her tree. 33. Its branch. 
34. Our tree. 35. Their tree. 36. Our own tree. 
37. Our own large beautiful elm. 


373. Descriptive adjectives. Descriptive adjec- 
tives call up some mental picture, as beautiful, 
sweet, tall. 

374. Demonstratives, used as adjectives, serve 
to point out, as this tree, that tree. The and a 
(379) are weak demonstratives. The and a are 
always adjectives ; they can never stand alone 
as subjects or objects. Compare 361. 

375. The possessive adjectives are my, our, 
your, his, her, its, own, whose, as in my house, 
my own house, its roof, etc. Note the difference 
between our and ours, your and yours (362). 
Oivn is the emphatic possessive. Observe the 
spelling of the possessive its and the contrac- 
tion it's (29). Whose (note the spelling) is 
the possessive adjective used in questions 
and relative clauses : 

1. Whose book is it? 

2. The author whose book you liked was here to-day. 

376. Numerals (363) may be used as adjec- 
tives, as in the first tree, seven trees. 

377. Indefinites (364) may be used as adjec- 
tives, as in all men, most men. Every and certain 
are always so used, never as subjects or objects. 


378. Which and what (365, 367) may be used 
as adjectives in questions and relative clauses : 

1. Which book do you want? 

2. I know what book you want. 

379. The two smallest adjectives are the and a 

(or an) (374). 

The points out, but not so distinctly as this or 
that. An singles out an example of a class. 

A is a short form of an, used where an is hard 
to pronounce. When a noun begins with a 
vowel sound, as apple, we use an before it. 
Thus we say : an orange, an egg, an iceberg, an 
ox, an onion. Also we say an honor, and an hour, 
because the h is not sounded. 

When a noun begins with a consonant sound, 1 
we use a before it, as in a bat, a dog, a girl, a 
cat, a man, a noun, a pear, a stone, a top, a zig- 
zag, a horse, a history, a historical sketch, a lamb, 
a rat, a ivagon, a yard. 

The test, you see, is the sound of the follow- 
ing word. Words beginning with h, o, and u 
have to be watched, for some take an, some a. 
Thus we say an honor, an hour, an order, an 

1 All the letters are commonly called consonants except a, 
e, i, o, u, which are vowels. But o and u sometimes have 
the sound of the consonant ?/, as in one union. 


uncle; but a history, a historical sketch, a hotel, 
a humblebee, a one, a union, a unit, a united 

380. Practise Exercise. Which words 
seem to you to need the before them ? 

1. The secretary and treasurer both resigned. 2. The 
cashier and teller both ran away. 3. The owl, eel, and 
warming-pan w T ent to call on the soap-fat man. 4. The 
night and day are two separate things. 5. The father 
and brother should be treated alike. 6. The man and 
bear looked at each other in silence. 7. The cow and 
horse are tw T o domestic animals. 8. The mountain 
and squirrel had a quarrel. 9. The first and last need 
equally to be learned. 10. The first page and last need 
equally to be learned. 11. He studied all day, all night, 
all week, all month, and all summer. 1 

381. Practise Exercise. Is there need of 
repeating the at any point in the following 
sentences ? 

1 After all, the is needed before week, month, spring, 
autumn, but not before day, night, summer, v'inter. This 
does not seem a reasonable distinction, but language is not 
always reasonable. The simple fact is that careful speakers 
do not say all week, and all month, though they do say all 
day, all summery and all vrinter, as well as all the day, etc. 

Careful speakers also say enter school and enter college, 
but not enter grammar school, or enter high school, or enter 
university. Enter the grammar school and enter the high 
school are the preferred forms, 


1. The secretary and treasurer was recently installed 
in office. 2. The cashier and teller has a double office to 
perform. 3. The father and brother in this case is 
named John. 4. Mother and babe are asleep. 5. The 
first and last stanzas will be enough. 6. That was the 
first and last time I ever went. 7. The second and third 
examples are hard. 8. The North and South fought as 
one country against Spain. 9. The United States and 
Canada are two countries. 10. The cup and saucer was 

382. Practise Exercise. Which of the 
following sentences need another a or an? 

1. A soft and pretty cap it was. 2. A large and small 
man went together. 3. Did you ever see a sloop and 
schooner side by side? 4. There were a Frenchman and 
German in here yesterday. 5. A robin and catbird are 
very unlike in disposition. 6. A good speller and bad 
speller do not have an equal chance of keeping positions 
as stenographers. 7. A black and tan dog has a smooth 
coat. 8. A black and tan dog were chasing rabbits to- 
gether. 9. A city and country mouse paid visits to each 
other. 10. He is both a scholar and gentleman. 

383. Assuming and predicate adjectives. Ad- 
jectives usually stand before nouns, as in my 
beautiful dog. In using the name my beautiful 
dog, you assume that the dog is beautiful ; you 
do not say so outright. Suppose now that your 
friend says, "But your dog isnt beautiful." 
Now the adjective stands in the predicate, to 
help express your friend's opinion of the dog. 


You took it for granted that the quality of 
beauty was in your dog; he expressly asserted 
that it was not. 

An assuming adjective usually stands before a 
noun, and takes a quality for granted. A predi- 
cate adjective usually stands after a link-verb 
(307), and is asserted concerning the subject. 

384. Analysis Exercise. Select the as- 
suming adjectives and the predicate adjectives. 

1. Let your company be better than yourself. 2. The 
sluggard is wiser in his own conceit than seven men that 
can render a reason. 3. Conceit, which is natural in 
youth, is sure to be pruned. 4. A happy youth is the 
time of noble dreams. 5. An idle man is like a house- 
keeper who keeps an open door for any burglar. 6. A 
soft answer turneth away wrath, but grievous words 
stir up anger. 7. Wrath is cruel. 8. Faithful are the 
wounds of a friend. 9. A southerly wind and a cloudy 
sky proclaim it a hunting morning. 10. A brook trout 
is beautiful as a gem, and harder to catch than some 
distinctions in grammar. 

385. The adjective produced. Note the word 
happy, in The gift made the boy happy. It seems 
to show a quality produced in the object by the 
action of the gift on the boy. Happy is a predi- 
cate adjective, but it also modifies the object. 
A predicate adjective after an object shows a 


quality produced in the object, and may be called 
the adjective produced. 
Compare 320. 

386. Analysis of "whole sentences. In analyz- 
ing whole sentences containing adjectives we 
use the formula found in 327, with slight 
changes. The new formula is as follows : 

1. The complete subject and the complete predicate. 

2. The simple subject and its modifiers. 

3. The verb. 

4. The predicate noun or adjective. 

5. The objects of the verb, and their modifiers, includ- 
ing the adjective produced. 

If we take the sentence A forgetful head is 
troublesome, the analysis will run as follows : 

1. The complete subject is A forgetful head ; the com- 
plete predicate is is troublesome, 

2. The simple subject is head. Head is modified by 
the adjectives a and forgetful. 

3. The simple predicate is is. 

4. The predicate adjective is troublesome. 

387. Analysis Exercise. Analyze the 
following sentences. 

1. Many cooks spoil the broth. 2. Tigers are large 
cats. 3. James called Henry his best friend. 4. Hope 
makes a man strong. 5. An honest man is God's noblest 


work. 6. Experience keeps a dear school. 7. Evil words 
corrupt good manners. 8. April showers bring May 
flowers. 9. Every man's business is no man's business. 
10. A little leak will sink a great ship. 11. Few men 
can receive advice. 12. Some boys refuse guidance. 
13. That tree is a white pine. 14. The stars are suns. 
15. The stars' distance is inconceivable. 16. The general 
made the young man a first lieutenant. 17. You make 
me happy. 



388. The verbal adjective in " ing." The verbal 1 
in ing may be used either as a noun or as an 
adjective. We may say Hunting is a sport, or, 
a hunting dog. 

This verbal may be used either as an assum- 
ing or as a predicate adjective. We may say 
the hunting dog, or The dog is hunting. 

The predicate verbal adjective may take an 
object, as in The dog is hunting rabbits. 

The assuming verbal adjective can take an 
object if we put the adjective after the noun, 
as in The dog hunting rabbits is my dog. Notice 
that the dog hunting rabbits is a name. The 
dog hunting rabbits is a phrase (186). The dog 
hunting rabbits makes no statement, but assumes 
the hunting. 2 In the dog hunting rabbits, hunt- 
ing modifies dog ; so does hunting rabbits. 

1 Verbal nouns and adjectives are called verbals, for 

2 Verbal adjectives are often called participles. A slangy 
boy, on hearing that only verbs make the speaker respon- 
sible, said : " I see. You can't be pinched for a participle." 



Assuming verbal adjectives often become pure 
adjectives. When we speak of a charming scene, 
we do not stop to think that it means a scene 
charming us. And there is not much idea of 
action left when we speak of a thinking man, a 
rising young m<an, or a man lacking in good sense. 

389. Analysis Exercise. Tell of each 
verbal in ing whether it is a noun or an adjec- 

1. A rolling stone gathers no moss. 2. Rolling up his 
bundle, the tramp started on. 3. Rolling is a name ap- 
plied to a process in iron-making. 4. We are rolling along 
merrily. 5. Eating takes away the appetite. 6. Eating 
food takes away the appetite. 7. When the poet Horace 
spoke of an eating care, he meant destructive care, worry 
that eats into our hearts. 8. The prairie fire advanced 
swiftly, eating up everything in its course. 9. Cutting 
out well is better than sewing up well. 10. That cutting 
remark is cutting him to the heart. 11. Flying will some 
day be accomplished by man. 12. The yacht is flying a 
flying-jib. 13. I saw him running. 14. I saw his run- 
ning. 15. She caught us going. 16. She objected to our 
going. 17. I approve of your acting as you do. 18. I 
hope you don't mind my saying so. 19. What's the 
matter with my doing that? 20. What is the objection 
to my going ? 21. There was no chance of his succeeding. 
22. His saying so shows that it probably was so. 23. Your 
answering that way reminds me of a story. 24. Your an- 
swer sets me to thinking. [Here thinking is a noun.] 
25. I am sending you a book by this mail. 26. As we 
were saying, there is always a best way of getting a lesson. 


390. People are sometimes puzzled whether 
to say me or my, you or your, him or his before 
the verbal in ing. Shall we say Whafs wrong 
with me doing that? or Whafs wrong with my 
doing that? Shall we use the adjective, or the 
noun? Doing is an adjective in me doing; it 
is a noun in my doing. 

If Ave stop to think, our own common sense 
will always answer this question. If we are 
thinking of the person in action, then we should 
say me, or him, or you. If we are thinking of 
the action itself, then we should say my, or your, 
or his. 

Study sentences 13 to 22 in 389. 

391. Practise Exercise. Each member 
of the class should repeat the following from 

What's wrong in my going? What's wrong in our 
going ? 

What's wrong in your going? What's wrong in their 

What's wrong in his going ? What's wrong in John's 

What's wrong in her going ? What's wrong in any- 
one's going? 

392. The freed or absolute noun. Examine 
two sentences : 


1. John, being sick, could not play ball. 

2. John being sick, Will had to pitch for him. 

In the first sentence the subject is John, and 
being modifies it. In the second sentence, the 
subject is Will, and the phrase John being sick 
tells the circumstances under which Will had 
to pitch for John. Notice the difference in 
punctuation between the two sentences. 

The phrase John being sick is composed of a 
noun, a verbal adjective modifying it, and a 
predicate adjective after the verbal. The noun 
is said to he freed from the sentence, because it 
is neither subject nor object. 

The absolute or freed noun is modified by a 
verbal adjective, but is neither a subject nor 
an object. Taken with its verbal adjective it 
usually shows the circumstances of some. action. 

393. The absolute noun is often an awkward 
construction. It is not good English to say 
John sickening, Will had to pitch for him. We 

1. John was sick, and Will had to pitch for him; or, 

2. Will had to pitch for John, because John was sick. 

394. Nouns and pronouns should stand near 
the verbal adjectives that are meant to modify 
them. Otherwise the wrong noun may be modi- 


fied. Study the following sentences and ex- 
plain why those marked " wrong " fail to give 
the same meaning as those marked "right.'' 

1. (Wrong) I counted seven meteors sitting on my 
back piazza. 

(Right) Sitting on my back piazza, I counted seven 

2. (Wrong) Coming up so early, the frost soon 
pinched the daffodils. 

(Right) Coining up so early, the daffodils were soon 
pinched by the frost. 

3. (Wrong) Wearing a helmet, the policeman mistook 
him for a fireman. 

(Right) Wearing a helmet, he was mistaken by the 
policeman for a fireman. 

4. (Wrong) Eating apples in my orchard I counted 
seven small boys. 

(Right) I counted seven small boys eating apples in 
my orchard. 

395. A verbal adjective must have a noun 
or pronoun to modify. Study the following 
sentences and show why some are wrong. 

1. (Wrong) Being rainy, we stayed in and played 

(Right) The weather being rainy, we stayed in and 
played dominoes. 

(Right) Since it was rainy, we stayed in and played 

2. (Wrong) Belonging to the senior class, his ideas 
were respected. 


(Right) Belonging to the senior class, he had ideas 
that were respected. 

(Right) Since he belonged to the senior class, his 
ideas were respected. 

3. (Wrong) Fearing more trouble, it was decided to 

(Right) Fearing more trouble, we decided to stop. 

(Right) We feared more trouble, and so decided to 

(Right) We decided to stop, for we feared more 

(Right) As we feared more trouble, we decided to 

A very few verbal adjectives, chiefly owing, 
considering, and judging, may be used without 
a noun or pronoun to modify. We may 

Owing to this trouble, it was decided to stop. 
Considering everything, it seems best to go ahead. 
Judging by appearances, that man is a tramp. 

396. The past verbal adjective. The verbal 
adjective in ing is often called the " present " 
verbal adjective, because it is derived from a 
verb-form that shows present time. This verbal 
always represents a process as still going on. 

There is another verbal adjective, called the 
past. In a baked apple, baked shows a process 
now finished. The risen sun means the sun 
already risen. 


We have met the past verbal adjective in 67, 
where we called it the past participle. Parti- 
ciple means part-taking, or partaking. Verbal 
adjectives are often called participles, because 
they partake of two natures : the verb and the 
adjective. Verbal nouns also partake of two 
natures, but are not called participles. 

Sometimes the past participle has the same 
form as the past verb. Baked is an example. 
We can speak of a baked apple, or we can assert 
that The cook baked the apple. Some past parti- 
ciples are different from the past verb. Such 
are : blown, broken, done, eaten, flown, frozen, 
given, gone, grown, knoivn, lain, ridden, risen, 
seen, shaken, shown, stolen, taken, thrown, writ- 

Past participles are not much used as assum- 
ing adjectives before nouns. Still we can say 
a full-blown rose, a broken arm, a frozen finger, a 
given name, a gone goose [slang], a grown man, 
a known fact, the risen sun, a stolen gem, a writ- 
ten exercise. 

Past participles are oftener used as assuming 
adjectives after nouns, as in the phrases a task 
begun, a duty done, a conflict ended. 

Pick out the participles, and the nouns 
they modify, in the italic phrases ; 


1. Wisps of hair blown about her face gave her an 
elfish look. 

2. That meal, eaten in silence, was long remembered. 

3. Fresh cherries frozen in ice-cream are delicious. 

4. The entertainment given by the students was well 

5. We're tenting to-night on the old camp-ground, 
thinking of days gone by. 

6. Roses grown in a hothouse are tender. 

7. A poem known by heart is a precious possession. 

8. A large moth often seen in this country is called the 

9. The goods shown in the window are all new. 

10. The instrument stolen from my locker was a draw- 
ing pen. 

11. Funds taken from the treasury must be replaced. 

12. The company, thrown into confusion, soon broke up. 

13. Exercises written in pencil must be copied in ink. 

397. The past participle modifying an object 
is often used with has or have. We say I have 
my house finished. House is the object of have. 
Finished modifies house. In like fashion we 
can say : 

1. He has his work done. 

2. They have the field plowed. 

3. Cook has the apples baked. 

4. I have my composition written. 

In such cases we think of having the work, 
the field, the apples, the composition, all in a 
finished condition. But suppose we are think- 


ing of the act of getting the object finished. 
When we think chiefly of the act, we turn the 
sentences around, and say : 

1. He has done his work. 

2. They have plowed the field. 

3. Cook has baked the apples. 

4. I have written my composition. 

In these cases we hardly remember that the 
participle is an adjective at all. We think of 
it as a part of the verb. Have loses its idea 
of owning, and merely asserts that something 
has already been done. The participle tells 
what that something is. 

It would be absurd to say: 

1. I have my dog lost. 

2. I have my dog given away. 

But we can say : 

1. I have lost my dog. 

2. / have given away my dog. 

398. The past participle is very often a predi- 
cate adjective. 

1. My dog is lost. 

2. My composition is finished. 

3. The apples are baked. 

4. The winter is gone. 

5. The sun is risen. 


These sentences are all good English. But 
such a one as The sun is risen does not always 
seem strong enough to us. We like to think of 
things as doing something. So we have fallen 
into a way of saying The sun has risen. 

399. While we are speaking of participles 
used in the predicate, we must notice another 
interesting difference in meaning. Compare 
two sentences: 

1. The cook was baking the apple. 

2. The apple was baked by the cook. 

We see that baking and baked are both predi- 
cate adjectives after was. But baking takes an 
object, apple. It is therefore called an active 
participle. Baked represents the apple as acted 
on, and is called a passive participle. The cook 
acted. The apple lay passive in the cook's hands 
while it was washed and placed in the oven ; 
and there it again lay passive, being made brown 
and wrinkled and sugary. 

We may think of was baked as a whole verb, 
if we wish. Then we call it a passive verb- 
phrase, or passive group-verb. 

The passive participles are merely the past 
participles of transitive verbs (308). 


400. Intransitive verbs, like rise, go, lie, have 
present participles like rising, going, lying, and 
past participles like risen, gone, lain. But none 
of these are active or passive. 

1. The moon is rising ; some stars have risen. 

2. My friend has gone, and I am going. 

3. The book is lying where it has lain all day. 

The link-verb is has the link-participles being 
and been. 

1. The apple is being baked. 

2. The apple was being baked. 

3. The apple has been baked. 



401. Adverbs are words that modify verbs, 
adjectives, or other adverbs. 

402. Adverbs of time, place, manner, degree. 

Consider the sentence : Bring that dish here, 
now, carefully. The verb is bring. It is modi- 
fied by here, which tells the place of bringing ; 
and by now, which tells the time of bringing ; 
and by carefully, which tells the manner of 
bringing. Here, now, and carefully tell where, 
when, and how the dish is to be brought. Here, 
now, and carefully are called adverbs. Here is 
an adverb of place ; now an adverb of time ; 
carefully an adverb of manner. 

Consider also this sentence : Bring that very 
full dish most carefully. Note the adverbs very 
and most. They show how full, how carefully. 
They show the desired degree of fulness and 
care. Very modifies full, and most modifies 
carefully. But full is an adjective, and care- 
fully is an adverb. We see then that an ad- 



verb of degree can modify an adjective or an 

Adverbs of time show when; adverbs of place 
show where; adverbs of manner show how. 

Adverbs of degree are attached to verbs, ad- 
jectives, or adverbs to show how much, or to 
what extent. 

403. Mood-adverbs. Consider the sentence : 
Bring the dish with care, for perhaps it will spill. 
The adverb is perhaps. But it does not show 
when, where, or how. It shows the speaker's 
uncertain mood of mind. He does not know 
whether the dish will spill or not, but he thinks 
it may. Mood-adverbs show the speaker's atti- 
tude of mind toward his own assertion. The 
chief mood-adverbs are perhaps, possibly, prob- 
ably, surely, certainly. 

A few adverbs sometimes show manner or 
degree, sometimes mood. In Fido wags his tail 
sadly, sadly describes the manner of Fido's wag- 
ging. But in Fido is sadly lacking in good sense, 
sadly has two uses. First it shows the degree 
of the adjective lacking. Then it shows the 
speaker's mood. Fido's lack of good sense 
makes the speaker sad. 

Mood-adverbs usually seem attached to verbs 


or to predicate adjectives, but they modify the 
entire statement. They often begin or end the 
sentence rather than accompany the verb (221). 

404. Nouns as adverbs. Nouns are some- 
times used as adverbs, to show when, how long, 
or how far. 

1. He studies, evenings. 3. He staid an hour. 

2. He works all day. 4. He walked a mile. 

But the word place is not used as an adverb 
by careful speakers. 

Let us go some place is vulgar English for Let us go 

It must be some place else is vulgar English for It must 
be somewhere else. 

405. Practise Exercise. Each member of 
the class should repeat the following sentences, 
supplying the adverb somewhere. 

1. Let's go else. 2. The book isn't here; it must 

be else. 3. I wish I were else. 4. In pleasant 

weather I often feel like playing truant ; I want to go 

anywhere ; I get tired of school and want to be else. 

5. Look in every place ; you will find it . 

406. Other classifications. Here, there, thither 
may be called demonstrative adverbs, as well 
as time-adverbs. Once, twice, thrice, etc., are 
numeral adverbs. 


407. Caution. Many adverbs end in ly, as 
swiftly. But some adjectives end in ly. Such 
are those in lovely floiver, heavenly music, mas- 
terly speech, friendly Indians. We cannot say 
She talked lovely. We have to say, She talked 
in a lovely manner. 

408. Analysis Exercise. Select the ad- 

1. Suddenly there was a pause in the music. 2. The 
crow immediately flew away. 3. Presently a nuthatch 
began to chirp from the side of a tree. 4. The boat was 
soon lost sight of. 5. In an incredibly short time the 
game was won. 6. Pull hard, my sailor lads ! 7. Do the 
work right. 8. Deal rightly with all men. 9. He came 
noisily and rudely into the recitation room. 10. Brown 
always spoke considerately of other people. 11. She 
wears her hat jauntily. 12. The excuse was painfully 
insufficient. 13. Good sense is curiously lacking in 
some minds. 14. The truants bitterly rued the day. 
15. The 1 farther we went, the more the sound of the 
herd-bells lured us on. 16. The teacher was mightily 
pleased. 17. The enterprise was immensely successful. 
18. Silently the stars blossomed in heaven. 19. One boy 
asked the question sharply, and the other answered it 
roughly. 20. Two silly boys sat selfishly whispering, at 
the expense of those who were trying hard to study. 

21. School is extremely like life; indeed, it is life. 

22. Those who act considerately in school will be good 

1 The is here used as an adverb of degree, modifying the 
adverb farther. 


members of the community. 23. Nearly all criminals have 
had a little schooling. 24. A kindly man speaks kindly. 
25. That was a particularly nice piece which we sang 
last. 26. There are strictly fresh eggs, rather fresh eggs, 
somewhat fresh eggs, fresh eggs, and eggs. 27. The 
king of France marched down again. 28. Look up 
and not down ; look forward and not back ; look out 
and not in ; and lend a hand. 29. A well man works 
well. 30. An ill man labors ill. 31. A good man does 
well. 32. A bad man prays ill. 33. The milk-pail 
is quite full ; it will not hold another drop. 34. Prob- 
ably the greatest genius of that day was Julius Caesar. 
35. I shall probably come. 36. Perhaps it will 
rain. 37. Possibly there have been greater men than 
Washington ; there have certainly been few nobler 
ones. 38. Presumably there is a dictionary to be 
had. 39. Conceivably there are other inhabited worlds. 
40. There might perhaps have been some way out of the 
trouble; but unfortunately we did not know it. 41. She 
is really nice ; she is a real lady ; she is very nice. 42. This 
apple is really good ; it is very good. 

409. Adverbs with link-verbs. The pure link- 
verb is is (307). Seems, appears, feels, looks, 
sounds are called half link-verbs. 

The pure link-verb may be followed by ad- 
verbs of time, place, or mood, as in He is cer- 
tainly here now. Whether here and now modify 
the link-verb, complete the link-verb, or modify 
the subject is merely a matter of words. To say 
He is here is to give a quality of he, just as if 
you said He is present. There can be no objec- 


tion to saying that after is an adverb of place 
or time modifies the subject like a predicate 

The pure link-verb states no action, and can- 
not be used with adverbs that imply action. 
Nicely implies an action. We may say The 
patient is doing nicely. It is bad English to 
say that a person is nicely. When asked how 
a person is, we answer Well, or else Doing 
nicely. The adjective well means in good 

The half link-verbs do not usually state 
action, but they are often followed by the ad- 
verbs well and badly, as we shall now see. 

410. The link-verb feels should not often be 
followed by the adjectives good and bad. It is 
correct to say The fire feels good to-day , or Your 
cold hand feels good on my hot forehead. Bat 

I feel good means I feel righteous. 
I feel bad means / feel wicked. 

We almost never care to say that we feel 
righteous or wicked. In ordinary talk, then, 
we should say feel well and feel badly. For 
example : 

1. Are you feeling well to-day? 

2. Somehow I don't feel very well this morning. 


3. He was feeling badly, and I sent him home to rest. 

4. Don't feel badly over your composition. 

5. It made me feel badly to hear such news. 

411. The adverbs well and badly are occasion- 
ally used with looks. Study the following : 

1. She looks sweet. (" Looks sweetly " would mean 
" is gazing sweetly.") 

2. The crops are looking fine. (But " are looking 
finely " is permitted.) 

3. Harry is looking well this summer. He is brown 
and rosy. 

4. Harry looks well this evening in that black suit. 

5. The sky looks bad to-day. 

6. That prisoner looks bad. He has a bad face. 

7. That other prisoner looks badly. Confinement 
has not agreed with him. 

8. It looks bad when a young fellow always wants 
to borrow. 

9. Sally looks nice in her pink gingham. 

10. How beautiful your flowers are looking ! They 
are doing beautifully. 

412. After the link-verb sounds we often find 
well or badly. Study the following : 

1. That soft music sounds good to my ear. 

2. It sounds good to hear his voice again. 

3. Your sentence sounds well. 

4. It does not sound well to find so much fault. 

5. They say he gambles. That sounds bad. 

6. Your sentence sounds badly. 


413. Practise Exercise. Supply good or 
well according to need in the following 
sentences : 

1. Did you sleep ? 2. Doesn't this cool air make 

your forehead feel ? 3. Doesn't this fresh air always 

make you feel ? 4. Are you feeling to-day ? 

5. The pie looks . 6. The room looks . 7. The 

pastry tastes . 8. The doughnuts smell . 9. The 

boy seems at heart. 10. The child plays heartily ; 

he seems . 

414. Practise Exercise. Supply nice or 
nicely according as the blanks require adjective 
or adverb. 

1. Is my boy doing at school? 2. The fire is 

blazing now. 3. How your sweet-peas are 

doing ! 4. How they look ! 5. She always selects 

tints so ! 6. This package has been done up . 

7. The baby is tucked up and warm. 8. The boat 

keeps and dry. 9. His distinctions are much too 

. 10. His distinctions are much too made. 

11. How is the patient? Very well, thank you; he's 
doing . 

415. Practise Exercise. Insert bad or 
badly according to the requirements of grammar. 

1. That was done . 2. Poor Rover is looking 

3. That tramp means mischief. He looks 

4. The pippins are keeping this winter. 5. The doc- 
tor comes twice a day to see the orphan boy. He was very 

sick yesterday, and is in need of friends. 6. The 

governor is spoken of. 7. He was hurt . 


416. Practise Exercise. Insert pretty 
or prettily according to the requirements of 

1 . How she did that ! 2. Our canary sings 

and looks very — — . 3. Come now, behave . 4. See 

how that problem works out. 5. The skirt is 

trimmed . 

417. Practise Exercise. Insert awful 
or awfully according to the requirements of 
grammar. 1 

1. The teacher is sometimes nice. 2. This ice- 
cream is good. 3. She's clever. 4. He's 

successful as a business man. 5. It's likely to rain. 

6. What an little piece of candy ! 7. I'm late. 

8. It's good of you. 9. I'm sorry. 10. My 

head aches badly. 2 

418. Position of adverbs. Usually an adverb 
can stand either before or after the verb : He 
soon came. He came soon. Often it stands 
before the subject, as Soon he came. 

When an adverb modifies a verbal noun, it 
usually sounds best before the sign to or after 

1 Note however that there are other and better words 
than awfully — words like very, extremely, exceedingly, 

2 Here two adverbs in ly sound harsh, but the grammar is 


the verbal itself, as soon to come or to come soon. 
To soon come does not sound so well. 

An adverb may modify a whole phrase or 
clause. In I certainly think so, certainly modi- 
fies think so. In I don't think so, not modifies 
do think so. I dont think so means exactly the 
same as I think not. 1 

Only often modifies a clause, as in If only I 
could get started, I should succeed. But when 
only is meant to modify a word, it should stand 
directly before that word. Instead of I only 
ate one egg, a careful speaker would say I ate 
only one egg. 2 

419. Practise Exercise. Insert only before 
the word which seems to you to need modifica- 
tion most. 

1. I thought I would take the book, not keep it. 2. I 
thought I would take one book. 3. They are happy who 
are content. 4. I meant it in fun. 5. We found that we 
had three forks. 6. If 3 she would scold me I should feel 
easier. 7. If 3 we had known, we should have done so 

1 To the Teacher. I think not is a pleasant variant of 
/ donH think so, and students should be taught to use it for 

2 Only is occasionally a pure adjective, as in an only son. 
In She spoke to Harry only, only is more like an adjective 
than an adverb. 

3 Here an entire clause needs modification, and only 
should stand directly after if. 


differently ! 8. I know not where His islands lift their 
fronded palms in air; I know I cannot drift beyond His 
love and care. 9. They who work may eat. 10. Give 
me three grains of corn, mother; three grains of corn. 
It will keep the little life I have till the coming of the 
morn. 11. This advice is for yon and him. 12. When 
Shakspere's Cassias said of Rome that there was in it 
bnt " one only man," he meant what we should call 

" one man." 13. I said that ; I did not write it. 

14. 1 said that, and nothing else. 15. I want a bicycle 
to make me supremely happy. 

420. Practise Exercise. Insert not where 
it seems to you most needed. 

1. I went to find fault but to learn something. 2. He 
answered a word. 3. I said that it wasn't so, but that I 
thought it wasn't so. 4. We had what could be called 
a walking tour but something like a picnic. 5. All the 
foolish people are dead. 6. All that glitters is gold. 
7. Every man knows enough to hold his tongue. 8. All 
people are two-faced. 9. All men are liars. 10. Every 
one that begins holds out. 11. I asked for all the books 
but for one. 12. I'm afraid that all the guests will 
come. 13. I hope that all the party will be disappointed. 

421. Practise Exercise. Insert the ad- 
verb clearly in the best place, so as to modify 
the verbal nouns. 

1. To understand this problem, one must understand 
what precedes. 2. He seems to grasp the problem. 
3. It is hard to describe anything. 4. To define a word 
is good practise. 5, Give him to understand what the 
trouble is. 



422. Note the little adverbs in the following 
sentences : 

1. The army marched by. 

2. The swallow flew over. 

3. The child fell off. 

4. The teacher walked in. 

By, over, off, and in are adverbs, telling 
where. But they are not very full in sense. 
We make them completer by adding nouns, 
thus : 

1. The army marched by the hill. 

2. The swallow flew over the grove. 

3. The child fell off the pier. 

4. The teacher walked into the room. \In changes 
to into.'] 

When an adverb is completed by a noun it is 
called a preposition, or word " placed before " a 
noun. It then shows a relation between two 
things, as, the army and the hill, the swallow 
and the grove, the child and the pier, the 
teacher and the room. 

The phrase which it begins will usually keep 



its adverbial force, telling where, when, or how 
something is clone. By the hill, over the grove, 
off the pier, into the room are used above like 
adverbs, telling where the army marched, the 
swallow flew, the child fell, the teacher came. 

But such phrases may sometimes be used like 
adjectives : 

1. The army by the hill is ours. 

2. The sky over the grove is cloudy. 

3. The teacher in this room is the English teacher. 

4. The book on the table is mine. 

The book on the table is a smoother phrase 
than the tabled book ; tabled is a clumsy adjec- 
tive. Prepositions help us out when we fail to 
find a convenient adverb or adjective. 

A preposition is a relation-word whose mean- 
ing is completed by a noun or pronoun, in a 
phrase that usually equals an adverb, but some- 
times equals an adjective. 

423. Adverbs, you remember, show when, 
where, how, or how much. Adverbial preposi- 
tional phrases express all these ideas, and some 
others besides. By, from, and through usually 
show place. But they can show a cause, thus : 

1. The battle was lost by reason of carelessness. 

2. The battle was lost from carelessness. 

3. The battle was lost through carelessness. 


424. Nowadays the preposition usually stands 
before its noun or pronoun, but not always. 
We can say : 

1. This is the place which you went to. 

2. A preposition is not a bad word to end a sen- 
tence with. 

Originally it stood before the verb. So we 
got compound verbs like overdo, undergo, under- 
take. These verbs can take direct objects : 

1. The hero St. George overcame the dragon. 

2. The modern soldier undergoes an operation. 

425. Analysis Exercise. Tell what each 
prepositional phrase modifies. 

1. The child is playing about the house. 2. The collar 
about that dog's neck has " Bruno " engraved on it. 3. The 
stars above us seem like candles, but are suns. 4. The 
stars are shining above us. 5. The king after Cromwell 
was Charles the Second. 6. Jill came tumbling after 
Jack. 7. Tom Sawyer leaned lazily against the fence. 

8. The docks along the river are filled with shipping. 

9. Let us walk along the bank. 10. Fair youth beneath 
the trees, thou canst not leave thy song. 11. Safe below 
deck, we laughed at the storm. 12. Below deck, we 
laughed at the storm. 13. Beside the brook stands an old 
mill. 14. The old mill beside the brook is no longer used. 
15. The book is on the table? 

1 On the table modifies book like a predicate adjective 
(383). It may be called a predicate adjective phrase. 


426. For convenience we give the name object 
to the noun or pronoun that completes any 
preposition. In the sentence I came over the 
river * river is called the object of over. 

Careful speakers use object-pronouns after 
prepositions, as, with him and me (not with him 
and Z) . 

427. Practise Exercise. Insert me or J, 
according to the construction, in the following : 

1. They were speaking of you and . 2. Come 

along with father and . 3. Father has given a 

horse to my brother and . 4. Is there any mail for 

him and ? 5. She came after her and . 6. I 

suppose you've studied farther than I, 1 and have got 

beyond . 7. That girl will soon stand above you 

and in the class. 8. Hold the umbrella over both 

you and , if you please. 9. It was a great joke on 

them and . 10. My brother said, " Streams of water 

ran off the eaves down on Charlie and ." 

428. Practise Exercise. Insert who or 
whom according to the construction. 2 

1. For is it? 2. is it for? 3. At - 

- is 
it aimed? 4. is it aimed at? 5. With did 

1 Than is not a preposition, except in the expression than 
whom (448). 

2 The use of who in such sentences as 2 and 4 is so general 
that we may not call it a vulgarism. But in writing we 
should use the strictly grammatical form. 


you go? 6. did you go with? 7. By were 

you sent ? 8. were you sent by ? 9. are you 

speaking to? 10. To are you speaking ? 11. Over 

did you hold the umbrella? 12. did you 

hold the umbrella over? 13. was it that you 

went with? 14. For are you asking? 15. is 

it you are asking for? 16. was that you men- 
tioned? 17. did you say you saw ? 18. After 

were you hunting? 19. were you hunting after? 

20. On did the punishment fall? 21. did the 

punishment fall on? 

429. The chief prepositions. The chief prepo- 
sitions are : 

about, above, after, against, along, among, around, at, 
before, behind, below, beneath, beside, by, concerning, 
during, for, from, in, into, of, off, on, onto, through, 
under, within, without. 

The following words are occasionally used 
with prepositional force : because (in because 
of), but (= except), like (in act like him, etc.), 
than (in than whom). 

430. After. After nearly always requires an 
object ; it is a true preposition. Afterward is 
the corresponding adverb. 

Each member of the class should repeat the 
following : 

We had dinner, and played games afterward. 


431. Around. Around is always a preposi- 
tion of place. It is not good English to say 
somewhere around seven o'clock, for somewhere 
about seven o'clock. 

432. At. At refers to a point. To be in 
London means to be within the city. A per- 
son who is in London is of course at London. 
But at London refers to being at a given point 
on the map. 

At denotes not merely a point, but a point 
of rest. He is at home is correct. He is to 
home is wrong. To implies motion. 

People often omit at wrongly. 1 It is bad 
English to say He is home for He is at home. 
He is home is good English only when you 
mean He has got home. 

433. Practise Exercise. Insert the 
proper phrase, home or at home, in the 

1. I was staying . 2. Shall you stay this 

summer? 3. Why did your brother stay this 

morning? 4. Shall you be this evening? 5. Are 

you going directly ? 6. To stay is best. 

1 To the Teacher. No exercise is set for correcting the 
superfluous use of at after is. But many a pupil actually 
thinks such a use right, and needs constant correction. 


7. Stay and take care of yourself, to-morrow. 

8. Stay and news will find you. 9. Bridget is 

living now. 

434. Because of. Because is not usually a 
preposition. But it is one in the phrase 
because of. This is merely a quick pronun- 
ciation of by cause of. 

435. Beside, besides. Beside denotes place ; 
besides denotes addition, as Two besides me 
sat beside the sick man. When people use 
besides, they generally use it correctly. The 
trouble is that they sometimes use beside in- 
stead of besides. 

Each member of the class should repeat : 

Two besides me Two besides her 

Two besides you Two besides us 

Two besides him Two besides them 

436. Between. Fastidious speakers never 
use between except when speaking of two 
objects, and two only. In such a sentence 
as Divide the apple among the three they do 
not admit between for among. There is how- 
ever no serious objection to saying between 
three, though you could not say between the 


Between requires at least two objects. Say 
between mouthfuls, not between every mouthful, 

437. But. But is usually a conjunction. 
When but means except, it is a preposition, 
and takes an object-pronoun, as in All but 
him had fled. 

Each member of the class should repeat : 

All but me were there. All but us were there. 

All but him were there. All but them were there. 

438. For. For with its object often means 
the same as the indirect object (319). 

Remember that there is a conjunction for 
(459, 496 c). 

439. From. After different, the proper 
preposition is from. The word than is not 
a preposition except in the expression than 
whom. We say better than Z, different from 

440. Practise Exercise. Insert from 
wherever it seems needed in a blank. 

1. This fruit is larger than that, and different 

it. 2. This fruit is larger than and different that. 

3. The German is taller than the Italian, and very 

different him. 4. The grizzly rights better than 

some bears when aroused, but none is naturally lazier 


than he ; he is not different them all in this respect. 

5. My brother is very different in most respects, particu- 
larly in his tastes, the rest of the family. 

441. Into. Consider three sentences : 

1. Go in, Fido. [In, adverb.] 

2. Fido is in the water. [In, preposition.] 

3. Go into the water, Fido. [Into, preposition.] 

In as a preposition does not often imply 
motion toward. It is not very good English 
to say Gro in the house. 

442. Practise Exercise. Insert in or into 
as place where or place into which is meant. 

1. Come the garden, Maud. 2. Come the 

house. 3. I went the house for a moment. 4. The 

fish swims the water. 5. A boy often falls 

the water. 6. Are you going town to-day ? I'm 

going in by the express. 7. Harold goes in for chess ; 

he has gone deep the subject ; in fact, he's 

rather too deep for most of us. 8. The teacher went 

the building just now. 9. Cut the apple two ; 

cut it two pieces ; there, now it's halves. 

10. a shut mouth flies cannot fly. 

443. Like. Like is often an adjective with 
prepositional force, as in A man like him would 
tell the truth. 

At other times we may call like a preposi- 
tion, as in Act like him. Like him is an adverb- 
ial phrase. 


We have already been advised not to say 
Do like he does (178) for Do as he does. 1 

444. Of. Of with a noun often equals the 
genitive noun ; of John may mean John's. This 
fact will be discussed later. 

Of with a pronoun usually equals an adverb, 
as in We spoke of them. Very rarely it equals a 
possessive adjective. The father of us equals 
our father. 

Of with a noun often equals an adjective of 
material. A crown of gold equals a golden 

Many adjective phrases with of mean forming 
a part of as the chimney of the house, several of 
the apples. 

Of sometimes serves to strengthen an apposi- 
tive, as in the town of Boston. This dog of mine 
merely means this dog, mine. 

445. Off. The preposition of should not be 
used after the preposition off. There are few 
commoner mistakes than off of. 

1 To the Teacher. The history of this word, from 
A.S. lie (a body), with its cognates in German leich and 
gleich, is extremely interesting, and explains perfectly its 
present anomalous status. But it is impossible to make the 
case clear to a young student, and our energy may best be 
expended on such exercises as 178. 


Each member of the class should repeat the 
following expressions : 

Off the roof, off the pier, off my book, off the ground, off 
the tree, a leaf off the tree, a flower off a bush, a petal off a 
rose, a player off the first base, a piece off a stick. 

446. On, upon, up on. The preposition upon 
means about the same as the preposition on, and 
implies either rest or motion. When we wish 
to give the two ideas up and on, we write the 
words separately, as Go up on the roof. 

447. On to, onto. In On to Richmond! on is 
the adverb. Onto is a preposition. Formerly, 
careful persons never wrote on and to as one 
solid word, but onto seems now to have come 
into good use. 

448. Than. Than is used as a preposition in 
only one phrase : than whom. 

449. Practise Exercise. Insert an appro- 
priate pronoun in each blank. 

1. None was more brave than . 2. None was so 

brave as . 3. None was as brave as . 4. Few 

are so generous as . 5. No man is better qualified 

for the work than . 6. Napoleon, than no man 

of his time was a greater general, was cruel. 


450. Prepositions after "want." It is bad 
English to say I want up, I want out, for I want 
to get up, I want to get out. Always supply the 
verbal noun. The mistake is made in Scotland 
and in the Middle West of our own country. 

451. Practise Exercise. Below are fifty 
prepositional phrases having the force of ad- 
verbs. Use each in a sentence. 

Above all, all in all, at a loss, at all events, at any rate, 
at best, at heart, at fault, at hand, at most, at one, at 
random, at that, at the most, at times, by heart, by no 
means, by the bye, for a while, for all that, for instance, 
for long, for lost, for that matter, for the most part, for 
the present, for the time, from time to time, in a word, in 
brief, in general, in fact, in full, in other words, in part, 
in particular, in short, in the main, in vain, in view, more 
and more, no doubt, none the less, on the contrary, on 
the one hand, on the other hand, on the whole, once for 
all, over and above, under the circumstances. 



452. Conjunctions are words whose chief office 
is to connect clauses or sentences. 

453. Independent conjunctions. A pure or 
independent conjunction, like and, does nothing 
but connect. (And can connect words, or 
phrases, or clauses, or sentences.) There are 
about a dozen pure conjunctions — fourteen, as 
we shall reckon them. These divide into four 
groups : the and group, the but group, the so 
group, and the either group. 

The and group : and, also, moreover, besides. 
The but group : but, yet, still, nevertheless. 
The so group : so, therefore, consequently. 
The either group : either, or ; neither, nor. 

Independent conjunctions join things that are 
spoken of as equally important : 

1. Blue and green are both colors. 

2. Either this book or that will do. 

All independent conjunctions (except the 
either group) may connect sentences. We saw 



this in our study of what a sentence is (197- 
230). A statement beginning with an inde- 
pendent conjunction may stand as a sentence. 

1. It rained. And, what was worse, it blew. 

2. It rained. Also it blew. 

3. It rained. Moreover it blew. 

4. It rained. Besides, it blew. 

5. It rained. But the rain did not prevent our trip. 

6. It rained. Yet the rain did not prevent our trip. 

7. It rained. Nevertheless we went. 

8. It rained. So we gave up the trip. 

9. It rained. Therefore we decided to wait. 

10. It rained. Consequently we deferred the trip. 

454. We must not forget to insert a comma 
or a period before and, but, so, and or, when these 
words begin statements. 

A semicolon means about the same as a period 
(290). Review sections 284 to 295. 

455. Correct use of or and nor. ^Either — or, 
neither — nor are used in pairs. Or is used for 
nor when not or never precedes. 

456. Practise Exercise. Supply or or nor 
according to the construction. 

1. Neither Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday was 

pleasant. 2. I could not like the first, the second, 

the third. 3. There wasn't a bush a tree for miles 

around. 4. They did not say that there wasn't a bush 


a tree for miles around. 5. I couldn't find the ham- 

mer, the nails, the saw. 6. He never drinks 

tea coffee. 

457. Correct position of either and neither. 
In using either — or care should be taken to 
connect nouns with nouns, verbs with verbs, 
etc. Either should be placed directly before 
the word or phrase which is to be contrasted 
with another. The same principle holds in the 
case of neither. 

458. Practise Exercise. Insert the con- 
junctions either and neither correctly. 

1. John went, nor Henry. 2. Pie ate fish, flesh, nor 
fowl. 3. I see a floating barrel or a man in the water. 
4. He will win first place or second. 5. He sees a par- 
tridge or a red squirrel. 6. He will go nor send. 7. He 
hopes to win or else to fail honorably. 

459. Dependent conjunctions. Dependent con- 
junctions are such words as if and because. 
They do not connect sentences. They connect 
two clauses within a sentence. When a depend- 
ent conjunction begins a sentence, we know 
there are to be two clauses, the first depending 
on the second. 

The chief dependent conjunctions have al- 
ready been treated in sections 231 to 245. It 


was there shown that they turn any statement 
into a mere part of a sentence. 

The dependent conjunctions may be arranged 
in seven groups, as partly shown in section 232. 
These may be called the where group, the when 
group, the because group, the if group, the 
although group, the so that group, and the 
whether group. 

1. The where group : where, wherever, wherein. 

2. The when group : when, whenever, while, before, 
after, since, until, just as, as soon as, as long as. 

3. The because group : because, for, as, since, inas- 
much as, as long as. 

4. The if group : if, unless, provided, provided that, 

5. The although group : although, though, even if, 

6. The so that group : so that, in order that, that. 

7. The whether group : whether, if. 

Dependent clauses are always parts of sen- 
tences, and sometimes we use them as nouns, 
adjectives, or adverbs. 

460. Object clauses. That, whether, if, when, 
and where may begin clauses that are used as 

objects : 

1. I know that it is so. 

2. I think that it is so. 

3. He says that it is so. 

4. He asked whether it was so. 


5. He asked if it was so. 

6. He asked when ice went. 

7. He knows where we went. 

8. I don't doubt that it is so. 1 

Noun-clauses are usually objects of verbs of 
asking, telling, or thinking. Noun-clauses after 
verbs that ask are called indirect questions. 
Indirect questions begin with ivhether, if, when, 
where, who, ivhich, or what (366). Noun-clauses 
after verbs of telling or thinking are indirect 

461. Adjective-clauses. Where and wherein 
may begin clauses that modify nouns. Com- 
pare 367. 

1. I remember the house where I was born. 

2. This is the book wherein the quotation was found. 

462. Adverb-clauses. Nearly all dependent 
conjunctions can begin clauses that are ad- 

1. Where love is strong, faults seem few. 

2. The soldier fell where he stood. 

In two sentences like 

The soldier died because of his bravery, 
The soldier died because he was brave, 

1 Avoid saying I don't doubt but what. But what means 
except what (437). Say I don't doubt but that, or / don't 
doubt that. 


the thought is exactly the same. Because of 
bravery is an adverbial phrase (434). We do 
not usually speak of because as an adverb, for it 
is meaningless by itself. The soldier died be- 
cause is not a complete statement. We usually 
keep the name adverb for words that are com- 
plete enough to answer the questions where ? 
when ? how ? or how much ? We call because 
sometimes a preposition, sometimes a conjunc- 
tion. But we may say that phrases and clauses 
showing why are adverbial. 

463. Adverbial clauses are more or less ad- 
verbial. The examples given in section 462 are 
very adverbial. But often it is not easy to see 
any true adverbial force in a dependent clause. 
A statement beginning with where or while, for 
example, may seem almost like a new sentence : 

1. We finally reached the river, where we staid till 

2. This rose is white, while that is yellow. 

In spite of a time-honored custom, it is hardly 
necessary to maintain that clauses of purpose, 
result, cause, condition, and concession are ad- 
verbial. They are statements, though depend- 
ent, and do not often seem attached to any one 
word of the main clause. 


464. The Where group. Clauses beginning 
with where, ivherever, and wherein usually show 
the place of the main statement. 

465. The "When group. When, ivhile, before* 

after, since, until, just as, as soon as, as long as 
usually show the time of the main statement. 
Before and after may be prepositions of time 
or place, or conjunctions of time : 

1. Before the rain the sky grew dark. [Preposition of 

2. The grain bent before the rain. [Preposition of 

3. Before the rain came, the sky grew dark. [Con- 
junction of time.] 

466. The Because group. Because, for, as, 
since, inasmuch as, as long as may begin clauses 
that show the cause of the main statement. 
Since and as long as usually show time. But 
time and place are often causes. 

1. An hour has passed since you came. [Time.] 

2. I feel better since you have come. [Time and cause.] 

3. Since the day is fair, I shall go for a walk. [Cause.] 

4. I will stay as long as you wish. [Time.] 

5. As long as you have come, I can be spared. [Cause.] 

467. The If group. Dependent clauses begun 
by if, unless, provided, provided that are called 
conditional clauses. 


1. If it rains, we shall stay at home. 

2. If it rained yesterday, he probably staid at home. 

3. If it were raining now, we should be sorry. 

4. If the shoe fits, put it on. 

In such sentences the main clause is called 
the conclusion. 

A conditional sentence consists of a condition 
and a conclusion. 

468. The Although group. Although, though, 
even if, granting begin dependent statements in 
spite of which the main statement is made. 

1. We shall go, though it may rain pitchforks. 

2. It is hot, although there is a breeze. 

3. It would be worth while to do right, even if it did 
not pay. 

4. Granting that it will rain pitchforks, yet we shall go. 

These conjunctions are sometimes called the 
granting or conceding conjunctions. They 
make a concession. They yield a point. 

469. The So That group. So meaning there- 
fore is an independent conjunction (217, 453). 

So that, in order that, and that may begin 
dependent clauses showing the purpose of the 
main statement, or its result. 

1. We went early so that we might get good seats. [Pur- 


2. We went early, so that tee did get good seats. [Re- 

3. We went so early that ice might get good seats. [Pur- 

4. We went so early that ice did get good seats. [Result.] 

In order that shows only purpose. The differ- 
ence between purpose-clauses and result-clauses 
is this : result-clauses show a result actually 
accomplished ; purpose-clauses show a result 
aimed at, but not yet accomplished. 

470. Interjections. Interjections have al- 
ready been treated (274, 275). They do not 
form a true element of the sentence, but are 
" thrown in," as the word interjection implies. 
The commonest of written interjections are Oh! 
Ah! Alas! Pshaw! 

is used with vocatives (276), and is not 

Oh! is an exclamation of surprise, and is 
nearly always followed by a comma or an 
exclamation point. 

1. O thou invisible spirit of wine ! 

2. Oh ! did you say spirits of wine ? 



471. In trying to understand what is meant 
by " parts of speech " we have been analyzing 
sentences. We find that it is not always easy 
to do this to onr satisfaction. A sentence is 
a thought, and it is not very easy to pull a 
thought to pieces. It is like pulling a live 
flower to pieces. You can do it, and name the 
parts, and clumsily put the flower together 
again ; but you have taken the life out of it. 
When we talk of nouns and verbs and adjectives 
we are treating the sentence as if it were a 
machine, or a structure, or a dead thing. The 
process is useful, but we must never forget that 
it is " mechanical." 

There are a great many ways in which we 
may look at a sentence. One of the commonest 

1 To the Teacher. While it is desirable that the entire 
book should be studied in the order of the chapters, this 
chapter should not be given unless there is plenty of time for 
Chapter XI and such practise exercises as 590-603. Chap- 
ter XI should consume about two months of daily work. 
See 505, note, 



is to think of it as some sort of structure, or 
building. Some students think of it as a sort 
of picture, usually a " diagram " of straight 
lines, or circles. The living sentence is more 
like a string of little photographs on a ribbon- 
film. When the machine works, the photo- 
graphs are flashed on a screen. They come so 
fast that you seem to see but one picture, with 
persons and things in motion. The present 
writer knew a boy who often thought of a sen- 
tence as a train of cars, with the verb for the 
coupler ; and he once heard a grammarian 
speak of a sentence as a letter, and the vocative 
as the address on the envelope. All these fig- 
ures of speech may be helpful to us in studying 
the sentence, and doubtless others will suggest 
themselves to the thoughtful student. 

472. One of the truest ways of regarding a 
sentence is to think of it as bringing different 
things into relation with each other. Take a 
boy and a squirrel. See what a variety of 
relations they may bear to each other, and how 
variously each relation may be expressed. 

One relation of boy and squirrel. 

The boy captures the squirrel. 
The boy is captor of the squirrel. 


The boy is the squirrel's captor. 
The boy is a squirrel-catcher. 
The squirrel is caught by the boy. 
The squirrel is the captive of the boy. 
The squirrel is the boy's captive. 
The squirrel is boy-captured. 

Another relation of boy and squirrel. 

The squirrel bites the boy. 

The squirrel is a biter of the boy. 

The squirrel is the boy's biter. 

The squirrel is a boy-biter. 

The boy is bit by the squirrel. 

The boy is the victim of the squirrel's teeth. 

The boy is squirrel-bitten. 

473. Base-words and modifiers. Perhaps the 
commonest way of analyzing a sentence is to 
divide it into "base-words" and "modifiers." 

It is clear that the single noun or pronoun 
that stands as subject is a base-word to which 
other words are attached. In The lively boy 
easily caught a squirrel, boy is certainly a base- 
word to which the and lively are attached to 
modify and increase the meaning of boy. 

It is not so clear whether we are to regard 
the verb as a base-word or as a modifier. 
Caught changes our notion of boy, making the 
boy into a catcher. But caught is more than 
a modifier ; it is an asserter. So we usually 


regard verbs of action as base-words. In easily 
caught the squirrel, the base is caught, and it 
is modified by easily and the squirrel. 

But suppose our sentence reads, The boy is a 
squirrel-catcher. The question arises whether 
is is a base-word. It is a very important word in 
one sense, for it asserts ; it makes the speaker 
responsible. But log and squirrel -catcher are 
names of the same person. The really impor- 
tant fact of the sentence is that the boy gets a 
new name, the predicate noun squirrel- catcher. 
We may say that squirrel-catcher completes the 
verb and modifies the subject, while is asserts 
and links. For convenience, we regard the link- 
verb as a base-word, but we say that the com- 
pleters of a link-verb modify the subject. 

474. The two base-words of a sentence are the 
subject-noun and the verb, but the completers of 
a link-verb modify the subject. 

475. Modifiers of the subject. The various 
modifiers of the subject are as follows : 

1. Assuming adjectives and verbal adjectives 
(383, 388, 396-398). 

2. Adjective phrases (422). 

3. Adjective clauses (367, 461). 


4. Appositives and genitives (322, 324). 

5. Predicate nouns, adjectives, and verbal 
adjectives (316, 383, 388, 396-398). 

476. Modifiers of the main verb. 

1. Adverbs (401-404). 

2. Adverbial phrases (422). 

3. Adverbial clauses (462, 463). 

4. Objects (318, 329, 353) or object-clauses 
(366, 367, 460). 

5. Indirect objects (319). 

477. Modifiers of modifiers. Almost any modi- 
fier can serve as base-word to another modifier. 
Adverbs and adjectives are modified by adverbs. 
A noun used as object can be modified by any 
appositive, genitive, adjective, adjective-phrase, 
or adjective-clause. 

478. General analysis. The purpose of gen- 
eral analysis is to put the general structure of a 
sentence before us. We state the base-words, 
and then give their largest modifiers — whole 
clauses or phrases if there are such. 

The following formula may be used : 

1. Say whether the sentence is a statement, a question, 
or a command (251) ; and whether it is simple, complex, 
or compound (234)- 

2. State the base-words. 


3. Show how the subject is modified by clauses, 
phrases, or words. 

4. Show how the verb is modified or completed by 
clauses, phrases, or words. 

We may now analyze some sentences by this 

1. The boy whom you saw here caught a red 
squirrel in the woods 

1. This is a complex statement. 

2. The base-words are boy and caught. 

3. Boy is modified by the clause whom you saw here. 

4. Caught is modified by the object a red squirrel, and 
the adverbial phrase in the woods. 

2. The boy gave me the squirrel 

1. This is a simple statement. 

2. The base-words are boy and gave. 

3. Boy is modified by the adjective the. 

4. Gave is modified by the indirect object me, and the 
direct object squirrel. 

3. Our John was a hero when he said that 

1. This is a complex statement. 

2. The base-words are John and was. 

3. John is modified by the adjective our and the predi- 
cate-noun hero. 

4. Was is completed by the predicate-noun hero, and 
the adverbial clause when he said that. 

4. He is rapidly making his way in the world 

1. This is a simple statement. 

2. The base-words are He and is. 


3. He is modified by the predicate-phrase rapidly mak- 
ing his ivay in the world. 

4. Is is completed by the phrase rapidly making his 
way in the world. 

479. When a verb-phrase is hard to analyze, 
there is no objection to calling the whole phrase 
a verb. Has been making does not readily break 
up, though has is the real base. 1 

480. The variable point of chief interest. We 

must not think that base-words are always the 
points of chief interest. Our interest may be 
focused on some little modifier, as in 

I said My book, not yours. 

In ordinary conversation we answer only such 
words as we think will interest the inquirer. 
Often these answers are mere modifiers. For 
example : 

Whom did you think I spoke to ? 


No, I spoke to you. Can you hear me now ? 

" Easily." 

1 To the Teacher. The student may be asked to 
study and repeat the analysis of the four sentences given 
above. If then it seems profitable to do so, similar examples 
may be set. The question of time for Chapter XI and the 
practise exercises of Chapters XII-XVIII should be con- 



481. The marks of punctuation 1 are as fol- 

the period . 

the semicolon ; 
the exclamation ! 
the question-mark ? 
the dash — 
the colon : 
the curves ( ) 
the brackets [ 
the stars * * * 
the leaders . . . 

482. Of all these, the period and the comma 
are by far the most important. Beginners are 
slow to understand that they need to use these 
£wo marks intelligently in every theme. Before 
we study these two chief marks we may glance 
at the others. 

1 The hyphen and the apostrophe are not really punctu- 
ation marks. Eor the hyphen, see 512. For the apostrophe, 
see 29, 375, 525, 526. 



. 483. The semicolon is a kind of weak period. 
It joins two sentences in one, because they are 
closely related in sense. Beginners do not often 
need the semicolon. If you employ it at all, 
consult the teacher about every case before you 
hand in your paper. Examples of its use will 
be found in sections 290-295. 

484. The exclamation (!) follows exclama- 
tory sentences and vocatives (251, 275, 279). 

485. The question-mark follows questions 
(270). Beginners are likely to forget this, and 
use a period. A single word is often a ques- 
tion, as " What ? " 

486. The dash shows a sudden break, or sus- 
pense, or a violent parenthesis (280), or a list : 

1. Then — but what am I saying ! 

2. My native land — good night. 

3. I wish cities could teach their best lesson — that of 
quiet manners. 

4. The boy — such was his haste — was nearly choked. 

5. There were four evangelists — Matthew, Mark, 
Luke, and John. 

Do not use the dash after the comma or the 


487. The colon usually precedes a list. In 
force it is somewhat like the sign of equal- 
ity ( = )• 

1. There were four evangelists : Matthew, Mark, Luke, 
and John. 

2. The secret of success is this : stick to one thing. 

488. The curves enclose a strong parenthesis 
(280). They are less and less used every year. 
The comma usually takes their place. 

489. The brackets show something inserted 
by another person : 

He [Henry the Eighth] was many times married. 

490. The stars (* * *) show a long omission. 
The leaders (...) show a short omission. 

491. The Period. The period is the sign of 
grammatical independence. It separates state- 
ments that can stand alone. We have studied 
such statements in sections 197-230. There we 
found that beginners often use the comma for 
the period, and we called this The Child's Fault 
in Punctuation. We found too that begin- 
ners often set off a mere phrase or a dependent 
clause by periods, not knowing what an inde- 
pendent statement is. 


492. The Comma. The comma is the sign 
of incompleteness. It is used within the sen- 
tence. It shows what words are to be taken to- 
gether. It is the group-maker. Also it keeps 
words apart that do not belong together, and 
thus it prevents misunderstandings (290, 295). 

The comma should not be used too freely. 
When in doubt, omit the comma or consult the 
teacher. The larger the groups of words, the 
better, provided the sense is clear. But when 
the comma is needed, it is greatly needed. 
Every comma is important. 

A good reader makes slight pauses in many 
places where there are no commas. He pauses 
at nearly every comma, and at many other 
places. Commas have very little to do with 

493. Rules and examples to learn. The quickest 
way to master punctuation is to learn examples. 

Our task for some time to come is to learn 
the following six special rules for the period 
and the comma, with the forty examples. 
Master them absolutely. 

Remember to learn both the words and the 
punctuation. In reciting, mention each period 
or comma. 


494. Rule 1. The period separates inde- 
pendent statements. The comma cannot do 
this unless followed by and or but. 

1. Man proposes. God disposes. 

2. Man proposes, but God disposes. 

3. Wait till the time comes to strike. Then 
strike hard. 

4. Wait till the time comes to strike, and then 
strike hard. 

5. Washington won at Trenton. This turned the 
tide of war. 

6. Washington won at Trenton, and this turned 
the tide of war. 

7. Cowards are slaves. They are mastered by- 

8. Lincoln hesitated. He did not want a war. 

9. "Lincoln' 1 is a curious word. It means "col- 
ony by the pool." 

Note 1. For independent beginnings see 
197-230, 453, 454. 

Note 2. In examples 7, 8, and 9 the sense 
forbids and, but permits for. See Rule 3c. 

Note 3. The student always has the choice 
between the period without a conjunction and 
the comma with one. Sentences are stronger 
without conjunctions, smoother with them, 


495. Rule 2. Put a comma before and or 
but if it seems to connect distinct statements. 
Put nothing before and if it seems to join only 

1. Man proposes, but God disposes. 

2. Be bold, but not rash. 

3. Saul and Jonathan were lovely and pleasant 
in their lives, and in their death they were not 

4. I was afraid, and went and hid thy talent in 
the earth. 

Note. Distinct statements have each a sub- 
ject and a predicate. In example 3 the first 
subject is Saul and Jonathan; the second is 

But when the two statements have the same 
subject, as in 4, it can be omitted from the 
second. Then the second is called a condensed 
statement. A condensed statement is simply a 
predicate that seems like a distinct statement. 
Review sections 288 and 289. Note that went 
and hid seems like one statement only. 

In example 2 we have what seems like two 
distinct commands. The verb is the same for 
both, and is therefore omitted from the second. 
The second is a condensed command. 


496. Rule 3. A dependent clause is sepa- 
rated from its main clause by a comma or 
nothing (236). 

a. When standing first, it usually needs a 

1. If thine enemy hunger, feed him. 

2. Though the night is dark, morning will come. 

3. When wine is in, wits are out. 

4. Where law ends, tyranny begins. 

b. When standing last, it sometimes needs 
a comma, sometimes not. 

1. I propose to fight it out on this line, if it takes 
all summer. 

2. Work if it shines, and rest if it rains. 

3. Rob not the poor man, because he is poor. 

4. Do right because it is right, not because it pays. 

C. When /or, as, and since mean because, 
they follow a comma between the two state- 

1. Take therefore no thought for the morrow, for 
the morrow shall take thought for the things of 

2. Pay as you go, as you go safely so. 

3. Since 1776 we celebrate July fourth, since we 
celebrate the Declaration and not its formal signing. 


497. Rule 4. Members of a real series are 
separated by commas, or conjunctions, or both 
commas and conjunctions. 

1. Beauty, truth, and goodness are never out of 

2. All was ended now, the hope, and the fear, and 
the sorrow. 

3. Woodsy and wild and lonesome 
The swift stream wound away. 

4. The man of the world dresses plainly, promises 
nothing, and performs much. 

5. Some are born great, some achieve greatness, 
and some have greatness thrust upon 'em. 

6. Fear not sorrow, death, or life. 

Note 1. A series consists of three or more 
elements having the same construction. 

Note 2. The conjunctions used in a series 
are and, or, nor. 

Note 3. When the conjunction appears but 
once, put a comma before it, as in examples 1 
and 6. 

Note 4. Observe in example 1 that nothing 
interferes between goodness and are. 

Note 5. Firm-names often omit the comma 
before and, as in Smith, Jones and Company. 
But this older custom will be displaced in time. 

Note 6. Expressions like little old man are 
not punctuated. 


498. Rule 5. Parentheses and vocatives 
are usually separated from the sentence by 

1. Without economy, said Dr. Johnson, few can 
be rich. 

2. If I got places, sir, it was because I made 
myself fit for 'em. 

3. Why, sir, I'm not afraid, in any case, to try. 

4. "Well, my lord, what cannot be cured must be 

Note 1. The words Yes and No should 
always be followed by some punctuation, even 
if there is no vocative. 

Thus we always write Yes, sir, even though 
in pronouncing such an expression we make 
no pause between the words. The same rule 
holds in the case of Say. We always write 
Say, John. 

Note 2. The words Well and Why, as used 
as in 3 and 4, are always followed by a comma, 
even if there is no vocative. 

Note 3. The words perhaps, indeed, however, 
and besides are usually not parenthetical. Do 
not set them off except for unusual emphasis. 

Note 4. A strong parenthesis may be set 
off by curves, a violent one by dashes. See 


499. Rule 6. A regular relative clause shows 
which person or thing is being spoken of. Do 
not punctuate it at all. 

1. The man who hesitates is lost. 

2. God helps those that help themselves. 

3. A man is rich in proportion to the number of 
things which he can afford to let alone. 

An extra relative clause adds extra informa- 
tion about something already understood. Set 
it off by a comma or commas to show that it 
is extra. 

1. There is the sky, which you can see for your- 

2. He went to his father, "who was then in New- 

3. George Washington, who had just been chosen 
president, went to New York to be inaugurated. 

Note 1. The clause in 3 is a parenthesis. 

Note 2. Sometimes it is hard to tell whether 
a relative clause needs a comma or not. In 
such cases always consult the teacher. 

Note 3. Everybody knows what "the sky" 
means. Everybody knows who " George 
Washington " was. Everybody knows what 
the expression "his father" means. The rela- 
tive clauses are therefore extra; they do not 
show which thing. 


500. A general rule for the comma. Use the 
comma to help the reader, and not to interfere. 

We saw in 267 that there is no need of mark- 
ing the end of a subject by a comma. It is 
equally true that there is no need of marking 
the beginning of an object. 

Before an object or after a subject a comma is 
a nuisance. 

The following sentences show clauses used as 
objects. Note that no comma occurs before the 
conjunctions that, if ivhether, where, when, when 
these words begin object-clauses. 

1. I asked John where he had been. 

2. I asked John whether he should be present. 

3. John said that he had been at school. 

4. John answered that he should try to be present. 

5. I need not remind you that it is extremely ill-bred 
to make either a man's physical defects or his religious 
opinions the subject of ridicule. W. T. Hewett. 

6. Mr. John Burroughs declares that " a little foot 
never yet supported a great character." 

501. Practise Exercise. Take each of 
these quotations in turn, and repeat the rule 
or rules by which it is punctuated. Then re- 
cite the example which seems most like it. 

1. Young people think they know everything, and 
therefore they make positive statements. Aristotle, 


2. Chide a friend in private, but praise him in pub- 
lic. Solon. 

3. A city that is set on a hill cannot be hid. Mat- 
thew 5 : 14. 

4. Forsake not an old friend, for the new is not com- 
parable with him. Ecclesiasticus 9 : 10. 

5. Be not overcome of evil, but overcome evil with 
good. Romans 12 : 21. 

6. If you let your words run too far before your 
deeds, the deeds will never be able to catch up with 
the words. W. T. Hewett. 

7. We have left undone those things which we ought 
to have done. The Book of Common Prayer. 

8. If the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the 
ditch. Matthew Id -A. 

9. Resist the devil, and he will flee from you. James 
4:7. % 

10. Sweet childish days [they were], that were as long 
as twenty days are now. Wordsworth. 

11. Let him that thinketh he standeth take heed lest 
he fall. First Corinthians 10 : 12. 

12. The battle-stain on a soldier's face is not vulgar, 
but the dirty face of a housemaid is. Ruskin. 

13. There are few things more contemptible than a 
rich man who stands upon his riches. Blackie. 

14. The bravest and strongest men are generally the 
most peaceable. W. T. Hewett. 

15. Render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's. 
Matthew 22: 21. 

16. Poisoned by town life the sufferer says : " Well, 
my children, whom I have injured, shall go back to the 
land." Emerson. 


17. The Puritans hated bear-baiting, not because it 
gave pain to the bear, bnt because it gave pleasure to the 
spectators. Macaulay. 

18. The Indian, the sailor, the hunter, only these know 
the power of the hands, feet, teeth, eyes, and ears. Emer- 

19. Wishing, of all employments, is the worst. Young. 

20. [The brook runs] clear and cool, clear and cool, by 
laughing shallow and dreaming pool. Kingsley. 

21. They have sown the wind, and they shall reap the 
whirlwind. Hosea 8 : 7. 

22. The thing is true, according to the law of the 
Medes and Persians, which altereth not. Daniel 6 : 12. 

23. The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the chil- 
dren's teeth are set on edge. Ezekiel 18 : 2. 

24. There is a friend that sticketh closer than a 
brother. Proverbs 18 : 24. ' 

25. He that spareth the rod hateth his son. Proverbs 
13 : 24. 

26. He that repeateth a matter separateth chief 
friends. Proverbs 17 : 9. 

27. The morning stars sang together, and all the sons 
of God shouted for joy. Job 38 : 7. 

28. In the lexicon of youth, which fate reserves for a 
bright manhood, there's no such word as fail. Bulwer. 

29. Keep thy shop, and thy shop will keep thee. 

30. He heaps up riches, and knows not who shall 
gather them. Psalm 39 : 6. 

31. My book and heart 

Must never part. The New England Primer. 

32. Byron had a head which statuaries loved to copy. 


33. The boy stood on the burning deck, 
Whence all but him had fled. Mrs. Hemans. 

34. We have met the enemy, and they are ours. Perry. 

35. My foot in on my native heath, and my name is 
MacGregor. Scott. 

36. Rich and rare were the gems she wore. Moore. 

37. Wolf, snake, and crocodile are useful as checks, 
scavengers, and pioneers. Emerson. 

38. God made the country, and man made the town. 

39. These are the times that try men's souls. Paine. 

40. That fellow seems to me to possess but one idea, 
and that is a wrong one. Dr. Johnson. 

41. I feel like one 
Who treads alone 

Some banquet-hall deserted, 

Whose lights are fled, 

Whose garlands dead, 
And all but him departed. Moore. 

42. There is no such thing as a trifling dishonesty, but 
there may be dishonesty for a trifling gain. Phineas 
Bar num. 

43. Never leave till to-morrow that which you can do 

44. Take care of the pence, for the pounds will take 
care of themselves. 

45. The man that blushes is not quite a brute. Young. 

46. "I have not any proper courage, but I shall never 
let anyone find it out." A Young Soldier, quoted by 

47. The man who eats in a hurry loses both the pleas- 
ure of eating and the profit of digestion. Blackie. 


48. As to early rising, which makes such a famous 
figure in some biographies, I can say little about it, as it 
is a virtue which I was never able to practise. Blackie. 

49. My Lord of Hereford here, whom you call king, 
is a foul traitor. Shakspere. 

50. Boast not thyself of to-morrow, for thou knowest 
not what a day may bring forth. Proverbs 27 : 1. 

51. Courage, whether moral or physical, is of three 
kinds : courage to be, courage to do, courage to endure. 
W. T. Hewett. 

52. Justice, sir, is the great interest of man on earth. 

53. Tis still observed those men most valiant are 
Who were most modest ere they came to war. 

54. It is noble to be generous, but not at other peo- 
ple's expense. 

55. The teacher wishes to know what you have in 
your brain, and you give him what you take from a 
piece of paper. Blackie. 

56. The best part of a man is his little, nameless, unre- 
membered acts of kindness or of love. Wordsworth. 

57. Newton was a great man without either telegraph, 
or gas. or steam-coach, or rubber shoes, or lucifer matches, 
or ether for his pain. Emerson. 

58. He has not learned the lesson of life who does not 
every day surmount a fear. Emerson. 

59. Let the thing in which you are most skilful be 
that about which you are most reticent. W. T. Hewett. 

60. A lie which is half a truth is ever the blackest of 

A lie which is all a lie may be met and fought with 

outright ; 
But a lie which is part a truth is a harder matter 

to fight. Tennyson 


502. Practise Exercise. Show where 
commas would help the reader. Some sen- 
tences need no comma. 

1. When a friend asks there is no to-morrow. 2. Where 
ignorance is bliss 'twere folly to be wise. 3. Look where 
I point. 4. When no man is watching you be afraid of 
yourself. 5. Even if a donkey goes traveling he will not 
come home a horse. 6. If anything stay let work stay. 
7. You'll be sorry if you do. 8. Since there's no use cry- 
ing over spilt milk let us laugh and be merry. 9. He 
went until he dropped. 10. He ran as far as he could 
when he fell exhausted. 

503. Practise Exercise. Show where 
commas are really needed. 

1. Joy temperance and repose slam the door on 
the doctor's nose. 2. Faith hope and charity are 
called the three christian graces. 3. Grant Lee and 
Stuart were generals. 4. Chicago Boston and New York 
are cities. 5. Foxes weasels and minks kill rabbits 
squirrels and birds. 6. Grace grit and gentian will cure 
the tobacco habit. 7. The tree was a large flourishing 
oak. 8. The man was a handsome burly Englishman. 
9. There was the moon round bright and silvery. 10. He 
was a little old man. 11. What a pretty little watch. 
12. The fox squirrel is a large red squirrel but it is not 
a large red-squirrel. 13. Sally was a fine young lady. 

14. There was a foolish young lad named Simple Simon. 

15. See that great big dog ! 

504. Practise Exercise. Show where 
commas are really needed in the following 
sentences. Many sentences need none. 


1. The king will probably come here to-day. 2. The 
king will come here to-day probably. 3. It may perhaps 
rain. 4. Can it possibly have been mislaid ? 5. It may 
have been mislaid possibly. 6. It may possibly even 
probably have been mislaid. 7. Justice will sooner or 
later be done. 8. Surely the child was right. 9. The 
students however had not yet assembled. 10. A great 
steamer bearing down on the fishing boat sank it. 
11. Crusoe looking saw canoes on the shore. 12. Caught 
in the sargasso sea the hulks of steamers lay drifting 
together. 13. Looking down you see a forest of wonder- 
ful plants growing in the sandy bottom. 14. Seen 
through the vapor the moon seemed strangely large. 
15. There are in the sky about four thousand visible 
stars. 16. There are in the sky about four thousand 
stars visible to the naked eye. 17. A bow long bent 
must become weak. 18. This bow now long bent is 
growing weak. 19. The army picked up many stragglers 
on the way. 20. The army by the bye picked up many 
stragglers on the way here. 21. At last just before 
morning the fury of the storm abated. 22. Tell me 
not in mournful numbers life is but an empty dream. 
23. This trouble for the most part comes of putting your 
trust in old time-tables. 24. To-day in short has been a 
happy one. 25. He saved fifty dollars or even more over 
and above expenses. 26. The light of the nearest fixed 
star takes four years or thereabouts to reach the earth. 
27. The light of that small star seen by you now at the 
beginning of the twentieth century has just arrived here 
after nineteen centuries of flying through space. 28. Dif- 
ficult things in fact are the only things worth doing. 
Blackie. 29. Let your company be always when possible 
better than yourself. Blackie. 30. The act of giving up 
a fixed purpose in view of some slight inconvenience is 
dangerous to character. Blackie, 


505. Practise Exercise. Show where 
commas are really needed. Every sentence but 
three needs two commas. 

1. George Washington whom we all know about said 
that to be prepared for war is a good way to preserve 
peace. 2. President Charles W. Eliot who is president 
of Harvard University believes that every boy has his 
own strong points. 3. My head which is aching severely 
tells me to quit work. 4. This school-house which is a 
house to hold school in needs better ventilation. 5. My 
only brother who by the way is a farmer is in town to- 
day. 6. His face which was easy to see at that distance 
was ruddy. 7. The moon which was covered with clouds 
last night is bright this evening. 8. The moons that go 
round Jupiter are invisible to the naked eye. 9. My 
very best hat which I have had only a week is spoiled by 
the rain. 10. When we visited the town where my uncle 
lives we had a fine time. 11. When we visited Oakland 
where my uncle lives we had a fine time. 12. He that 
runs may read. 

Note to the Teacher. There is no better way of 
fixing the principles of punctuation in mind than to 
require, at this point, a month of daily compositions. 
A hundred words, written in class, will take about thirty 
or forty minutes. Narrative is the best type for the pur- 
pose in hand. At the beginning of the hour the teacher 
can tell some extremely short anecdote, in his own words, 
leaving the students to reproduce it in theirs. In the 
third and fourth weeks each pupil may properly be asked 
to write daily an account of the preceding day — what he 
did and saw. 



506. In every language we find groups of 
words having similar form, as leaf, leaves, leaf's, 
leaves'. The simplest word of the group is 
called the word, or the simple form, and the 
rest are called inflected forms of the word, or 
merely inflections. To inflect is to " bend " or 
change the word. 

507. In early times English had many inflec- 
tions, whereas now it has but few. Our fore- 
fathers used nine forms of the word glad, namely 
glad, gladu, glades, gladre, gladum, gladne, glade, 
glada, gladra. All the inflectional endings have 
now been dropped. Otherwise we should be 
saying, John is glad, and Jane is gladu, and we 
are all glade. Our early ancestors thought they 
needed all these forms ; our later ancestors dis- 
covered that one form would serve as well as 
many. Savage races still delight in unneces- 
sary inflections ; they like to ring the changes 

of sound. 



508. English nouns have now only four 
forms, as leaf, leaves, leaf's, leaves' ; and two of 
these sound exactly alike. Most verbs have 
only three forms in everyday use, as call, calls, 
called. Galling is not a verb. Most adjec- 
tives and some adverbs have three forms, as 
straight, straighter, straightest. Prepositions, con- 
junctions, and interjections have only one form. 

509. Inflections show slight differences in 
the meaning. Leaf means one object, leaves 
more than one. Changing the verb call to 
calls suggests that a different person is acting. 
Changing call to called changes the time of the 
action. Adding 's to a noun, as John's, sug- 
gests ownership. The chief ideas now ex- 
pressed by English inflections are seven : 
number, person, time, comparison, ownership, 
the subject-relation, and the object-relation. 
No one word contains all these ideas. Nouns, 
for example, have forms to show only number 
and ownership. In the following chapters we 
shall see what these seven different ideas mean 
as expressed by inflections. 

510. A pronoun and a verb combine in a 
little sentence, as I run. Either word or both 
may change form, as : 


I run we run 

you run you run 

he runs they run 

These little sentences, when viewed as forms, 
are called form-combinations, or merely com- 
binations. An orderly arrangement of such 
sentences is called a conjugation. We speak of 
the conjugation of a verb, meaning the com- 
binations that its verb-forms or verbals make 
to express ideas of time, etc. Thus the com- 
bination I shall run states a future act. 

511. Inflection does not change one part of 
speech into another, but derivation may do so. 
From the noun author we derive the noun 
authority, the verb authorize, the adjective au- 
thoritative, and the adverb authoritatively. 

512. Uniting two or more words is called 
word-composition, and the result of it is a com- 
pound word. Blackbird is a solid compound. 
Green-house, twenty-five are hyphen compounds. 

A rule for the hyphen. Use the hyphen when 
the compound means something different from 
the two words uncompounded. 1 

1. Green-house does not mean a green house. 

1 The forming of solid compounds, like blackbird, is best 
learned from the spelling book, 


513. Most English nouns have four written 
forms, as leaf, leaves, leafs, leaves\ These are 


the singular : leaf, 

the genitive 1 singular : leafs. 

the plural : leaves. 

the genitive plural : leaves'. 

The terms singular and plural refer to number, 
as we have repeatedly seen. Singular means 
one ; plural, more than one. These are the 
only number ideas now conveyed by English 

514. The usual plural ending is s or es, which 
is added to the singular form, as in book, books ; 
horse, horses; box, boxes. 

1 The genitive form is often called the genitive case. If 
we wish to call it so, we distinguish two cases of nouns : 
the common and the genitive. The genitive form is often 
called the possessive form. Genitive is a bad translation, 
through the Latin, of a Greek word (yeviKrj) meaning show- 
ing genus, or kind. "Printer's ink" is a certain kind of 



515. Nouns that end in y, after a, e, or o, 
add s for the plural : trays, chimneys, monkeys, 

Nouns that end in y after a consonant 
change y to i before adding s : baby, babies ; 
lady, ladies ; laddy, laddies ; buggy, buggies ; 
fly, flies ; reply, replies ; puppy, puppies ; cry, 

But the plurals of individual names do not 
change y to i. Thus we write the Macys, the 

516. The plural ending en, once very com- 
mon in English, now appears in but few words, 
such as children, oxen. 

517. A few plurals are formed by change of 
vowel, as men from man ; women from woman x ; 
feet from foot ; teeth from tooth ; geese from 
goose ; mice from mouse. 

The words milkmen, dairymen, Englishmen, 
Frenchmen are compounds of men ; but mans, 
in Germans, does not signify men. 

1 The original word is wifman. Wife meant merely 
woman, though now it means a married woman. Wif- 
man also meant a woman. Both woman and women are 
derived from wifman. That is why women is pronounced 
wVmen. The / has merely dropped out of the older word. 


518. Most compound words have regular 
plurals, as bandboxes, baseballs, bathrooms, bed- 
clothes, beefsteaks, spoonfuls. : : 

A few compounds have irregular plurals : 
fathers-in-law, mothers-in-law, men-servants, 

519. A few words do not change their forms 
to show the plural. We may say one deer, two 
deer ; one sheep, several sheep ; one fish, ten fish. 
Fishes is a form now used mostly by children, 
but it was common enough two hundred years 
ago. See also section 526, last paragraph. 

520. Some nouns, like crowd, people, com- 
mittee, are called collective nouns, because they 
refer to many persons or things as if collected 
in one whole. 

A collective noun may have at one time a 
singular meaning, at another time a plural, 
according as the speaker thinks of it. At one 
minute he may think of the crowd as a solid 
mass of humanity ; at another he may think of 
it as composed of many individuals. He may 
think of the United States as one country, or as 
many states forming a union. 

As regards the name United States, we may 


say that at times, as in 1860, it has been mostly 
a plural expression, because it was hard to 
think of the states as united in one country; 
but we may say that now the United States 
usually means one indivisible nation. It cost 
a million of men and ten thousand millions 
of money to decide whether the United States 
could deserve to be called a singular noun. 

521. A few words have two plurals. Cloths 
means kinds or pieces of cloth ; clothes means 
garments. A die is a stamp for stamping 
metal, and has the plural dies ; dice are square 
bits of wood or ivory, used in gaming. 

522. A few plurals come from foreign lan- 
guages. Data is a plural, meaning facts from 
which to reckon. We do not often use the 
singular datum. Strata (layers, as of rock) is 
the plural of stratum. Stratum is used as a 
good English word. Phenomena is the plural 
of phenomenon. Phenomenon means a visible 
fact, or a remarkable fact, as in " The aurora is 
a phenomenon of northern skies." Parenthesis 
has the plural parentheses. Fungus, a vegetable 
growth, has the plural fungi. 

In addition to their foreign plurals, certain 


words have an English plural also. Fungus 
has fungi and funguses. Memorandum has 
memoranda and memorandums. Appendix has 
appendices and appendixes. Index has indices, 
a term used in algebra, and indexes, referring to 
the indexes of books. 

523. A few words are used only in the plural: 
antipodes (opposite sides of the earth, or things 
opposed to each other); pincers; scissors; 

A few words once used as plurals are now 
considered singulars: gallows; mathematics; 
measles; news. 

Three words that are really singulars, but 
happen to end in s, are now treated as plurals ; 
these are alms, eaves, riches. 

The word summons is singular, and may take 
the plural summonses. 

524. The plural of Mr. is Messrs. (pronounced 
Messers). We write Mr. Macmillan, Messrs. 

Mrs. has no plural form, but it may have the 
plural meaning, as in the Mrs. Macmillans. 

The plural of Miss is Misses, as in the Misses 
Macmillan. But the Miss Macmillans would also 


be good English. Instead of a plural difficult 
to pronounce, as Hoplcinses, it is certainly bet- 
ter to use the plural Misses, as in the Misses 

In like manner we may say the Masters Mac- 
millan or the Master Maemillans, though the 
second form is rarely heard. 

525. The plural of single letters and figures, 
and of words spoken of as words, is usually 
made by adding '«. 

1. Dot your i's and cross your t's. 

2. 8's and 3's look alike. 

3. Your composition is too full of and's. 

Note that in such cases it is absolutely neces- 
sary to underscore the word in manuscript. 
Underscoring shows that the letter, figure, or 
word is spoken of as a letter, figure, or word. 
In printing, underscoring is represented by 

Remember that 's means ownership unless 
the word is underscored, and is spoken of as a 

526. The genitive of singular and plural nouns. 

The singular genitive of nouns is regularly 
formed by adding '$, as in John's. 


When a word already ends in s, the 's is pro- 
nounced as an extra syllable. Thus Adams's 
house sounds exactly like Adamses house. 

Pronounce countess's, Jones's, Lewis's, Hop- 
kins's, Briggs's, Burns's, Thomas's, Julius's, 
Watts's, Dickens's, JEneas's. 

In a few instances it is customary to add 
only the apostrophe to the singular noun, as in 
for conscience' sake, for goodness' sake, Jesus' 
words, Achilles' wrath, Hercules' labors. 

It is often possible to use the o/-phrase in- 
stead of the genitive. The inventions of Watts, 
the poems of Burns, the travels of JEneas, the 
labors of Hercules sound better to the ear than 
Watts's inventions, Burns's poems, etc. 

The genitive of plural nouns ending in s is 
spelled like the plural noun, and sounds exactly 
like it, but is written with the apostrophe after 
the s, as in ladies' . 

Plurals that do not end in s form the genitive 
by adding 's, as men's, oxens, children's. 

Words having the same form for singular and 
plural (sheep, deer) make the plural genitive by 
adding s' (sheeps' heads, deers' horns). 

The plural fishes loses its childish tone 
(519) when forming the genitive, as in fishes' 


527. The group-genitive. Such a phrase as 
the king of England's, in the king of Eng- 
land's crown, is called a group-genitive. The 
's belongs to the whole phrase. Such phrases 
are very common in modern English. Other 
examples are : a quarter of an hours task, a half 
a mile's walk, a doctor of medicine's diploma, a 
man of business' s promptness. 

We may even have the 's at the end of a rela- 
tive clause, as in the man I saw yesterday's son; 
but this construction is much more awkward 
than the ^/-construction, as in the son of the man 
I saw yesterday. 

Names of firms usually form the genitive by 
the group method: Macmillan and Company's; 
Marshall Field and Company's; Ivison, Blake- 
man, and Taylor's. 

In such sentences as i~ left it at Smith the 
bookseller s, we understand shop or store. Here 
bookseller is in apposition with Smith. If the 
appositive is a part of a long phrase, like the 
bookseller in Fifth avenue, the whole phrase is 
not included in the genitive. We then say, I 
left it at Smith's, the bookseller in Fifth avenue. 

528. Gender. We have now considered all 
the forms of the English noun. But it is inter- 


esting at this point to consider how distinctions 
of gender are expressed in English. 

Gender is distinction of sex. Male beings 
are of masculine gender, female beings of femi- 
nine gender. Plants and lifeless things are 
neither masculine nor feminine ; that is, they are 
neuter in gender — " neuter" meaning neither. 

The names of masculine beings are said to be 
masculine; the names of feminine beings, femi- 
nine; the names of neuter beings or objects, 

529. In present English, the idea of gender 
is not denoted by inflections, but chiefly by 
different words. 

Man, woman ; bridegroom, bride ; husband, wife ; 
father, mother; brother, sister; son, daughter; uncle, 
aunt ; nephew, niece ; boy, girl ; lad, lass ; bachelor, 
maid ; man-servant, maid-servant ; king, queen ; monk, 
nun ; wizard, witch ; lord, lady ; sir, madam ; sire, dame ; 
sire, dam; boar, sow; bull, cow; buck, doe; hart, roe; 
stag, hind ; ram, ewe ; hound, bitch ; stallion, mare ; colt or 
foal, filly ; cock, hen ; cock-sparrow, hen-sparrow ; gander, 
goose; drake, duck; drone, bee; he- wolf, she -wolf ; etc. 

530. Sometimes gender is denoted by deriva- 

Executor, executrix; hero, heroine; actor, actress; 
baron, baroness ; count, countess ; duke, duchess ; giant, 


The ending ster is sometimes a feminine end- 
ing, as in spinster. Seamstress has two femi- 
nine endings — str and ess. But the feminine 
force of ster is mostly forgotten. Trickster and 
teamster are usually applied to men. Webster, 
once the feminine of webber, a weaver, is now a 
family name. So is Baxter (from baker), and 
Brewster (from brewer). Indeed Baker and 
Brewer are used as family names as well as 
class-names. Spinster is now the legal name 
for an unmarried woman, though once it meant 
a female spinner. In the eyes of the law, all 
girls are spinsters, whether they know the use- 
ful art of spinning or not. 

531. Some words, like nurse, helper, servant, 
bear, fish, deer, may refer to either a male being 
or a female being. Such words are said to be 
of common gender. Certain words, like author 
and doctor, have recently come to be considered 
of common gender, so that we rarely say author- 
ess or doctress. The word actor is rapidly as- 
suming the common gender, and it would be 
permissible to say, "Madame Modjeska is a 
great actor." 

532. Little children "personify" things; they 
think of things as having life. They say, 

forms of nouns 297 

"Naughty fire; fire hurt baby." In the same 
way grown persons often refer to objects as 
alive, as in " The moon is up ; she looks pale 

It is customary to refer to ships as feminine ; 
but, curiously enough, a steamer is often spoken 
of as masculine. Thus we hear such sentences 
as " The yacht is on the rocks ; she will go to 
pieces," and, " See the steamers; that big fellow 
in front has all he can do to tow the three 
barges." Very often however a seaman really 
means the captain when he seems to speak of a 
steamer, as in u He is steaming this way." 

Poetry is full of personification. The poet 
Keats speaks of " Sorrow, with her family of, 
sighs," when he treats sorrow as a female being. 

533. Gender and the genitive. The genitive 
endings, 's and s\ are usually added to mascu- 
line and feminine nouns, and those of common 
gender, as John's, Mary's, the doctor's. 

The ^/-phrase may often be used of persons 
and animals, as in the works of ^Emerson, the 
wings of the bird ; but usually it refers to inani- 
mate objects, as in the handle of the bicycle, the 
streets of Chicago. 

To say Chicago's streets, for the streets of 


Chicago, would be to speak in poetic or lofty 
style. The streets of Chicago have been stained 
with the blood of heroic policemen, and a poet 
celebrating that heroism might properly refer 
to " Chicago's blood-stained streets." But the 
streets of a great city are usually a prosaic 
subject. 1 

It is true that newspapers often speak of 
Chicago's streets, America's population, etc., but 
the practise is not to be imitated. And no 
newspaper would speak of the hat's brim, the 
doors top, etc. 

There was however a time when the pos- 
sessive ^/-phrase was unknown. Good usage 
still supports such expressions as for mercy's 
sake, the earth's orbit, a day's journey, a week's 
pay, a dime's worth, his fingers' ends, at swords' 
points, a verb's subject. 

534. Practise Exercise. In the case of 
each pair of nouns, use one word to modify the 
other. Do this by putting one noun into the 
genitive form by adding 's, or by putting of be- 

x The poet did not find it necessary to speak of " Balti- 
more's streets" when he wrote 

Avenge the patriotic gore 

That flecked the streets of Baltimore. 


fore it. Observe the principles explained in 
533. Note that in several cases either con- 
struction would be right. 

1. roof, house. 2. dog, collar. 3. land, defenders. 
4. Arthur, book. 5. New York, government. 6. America, 
seaports. 7. George Washington, sword. 8. mercy, 
sake. 9. hour, rest. 10. temperance, cause. 11. San 
Francisco, streets. 12. Athens, acropolis. 13. pity, sake. 
14. justice, cause. 15. justice, sake. 16. justice, interest. 
17. America, beauty. 18. Cleopatra, beauty. 19. night, 
cover. 20. honesty, power. 21. holiness, beauty. 22. tree, 
leaves. 23. family, head. 24. China, misfortunes. 
25. Cuba, liberty. 



535. Most pronouns are so short, and have 
changed in sound so much from time to time, 
that it is hard to group them by their form. 
Such words as he and she are so unlike that 
we cannot speak of one as an inflection of the 
other. But we may speak of them as forms of 
the personal pronoun, and group them accord- 
ing to various meanings. 

Before attempting to make such groupings, it 
will be well for the student to review 344-367, 
especially what is said with respect to subject- 
forms, object-forms, and " common " forms. 

1 To the Teacher. "The pronoun" includes a medley 
of words. From their great age and incessant use these 
words have undergone extraordinary and confusing changes 
of form and function. It is assumed that the instructor is 
familiar with Sweet (New English Grammar, §§ 189-236, 
1053-1158). The acutest discussion of English pronouns 
from the point of view of their present functions is Professor 
Edward T. Owen's "Revision of the Pronoun," in trans- 
actions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and 
Letters, vol. xiii. 



536. Pronouns express ideas of person (357), 
number, gender, and construction 1 (326> 352-354)- 

The twelve personal pronouns may therefore 
be grouped in four ways: 

1. As showing person : 

First person : I, me ; we, us. [ We includes more 
than the speaker.] 
Second person : you. 
Third person : he, him ; she, her ; it ; they, them. 

2. As showing number : 

Singular : I, me ; he, him ; she, her ; it. 
Plural: we, us; they, them. [But we does not mean 
two or more J's.] 

Either singular or plural : you. 

3. As showing gender : 

Masculine : he, him. 

Feminine : she, her. 

Common : I, me ; we, us ; they, them ; you. 

Neuter : it, they, them. 

4. As showing construction : 1 

Subject-forms : I, he, she, we, they. 
Object-forms : me, him, her, us, them. 
Common forms : you, it. 

1 Construction is often called case. But this name is 
better applied to the construction-forms. Then English 
pronouns have three cases: subjective, objective, and 


For practical purposes we shall find the fol- 
lowing arrangement worth learning : 

Singular subjects : I, you, it, he, she. 
Singular objects: me, you, it, him, her. 
Plural subjects : we, you, they. 
Plural objects : us, you, them. 

537. The possessive pronouns (362) are used 

as singular or plural subjects or objects. They 

may be arranged with reference to person, 

thus : 

First person : mine, ours. 

Second person : yours. 

Third person : his, hers, its, theirs. 

538. The relative pronoun who is a subject- 
form of common gender ; whom is an object- 
form of common gender. These words usually 
refer to persons ; but they may be used of an 
animal to show that it seemed intelligent. 
Which is neuter, though it may refer to an 
animal or an infant. Indefinite pronouns (364) 
are of common gender. 

When the antecedent of a pronoun is a 
singular noun or pronoun of common gender, 
like person, anyone, everyone, everybody, any- 
body, it is best referred to by the pronoun he. 
In spoken English we may be pardoned if we 


refer to everyone, everybody, by they, but in 
strictness such words as one and body are 
singular grammatically. 

1. A person should be careful of what he says. 

2. Everyone should be careful of what he says. 

3. One should be careful of what he 1 says. 

1 Many careful speakers insist that we should repeat one 



539. Gender. Only the possessive adjectives 
(375) suggest the idea of gender. His is mas- 
culine, her feminine, its neuter. My, our, your, 
their, and whose are common. These adjectives 
show the gender of the owner, and are some- 
times called the possessive or genitive " case " 
of the pronouns. 

Whose generally refers to persons, because 
only persons are true owners. It may how- 
ever refer to an intelligent animal, or poetically 
to a thing, as the storm, whose fury was now 
less. But whose is so much easier to say than 
the — of which that we daily use it of things, 
in spite of the grammars. Doubtless whose 
will come to be both common and neuter. 

540. Practise Exercise. Meantime, lest 
we forget that of which is good English, change 
tvhose to of which in the following : 

1. We climbed the mountain Helvellyn, whose top 
[the top of which] we found to be of solid rock. 2. I 



know a little town whose location is remarkably beauti- 
ful. 3. This great sea, whose entrance is the strait of 
Gibraltar, is called the Mediterranean. 4. This door, 
whose lock was long since broken away, led into a vast 
and gloomy hall. 

541. Comparison. We have seen that the 
idea of degree is often expressed by adverbs 
(402). The adverbs of degree, very, more, ex- 
tremely, etc., are placed before adjectives and 
adverbs to show how much, to what extent the 
adjectives or adverbs modify their nouns or 
verbs. • Thus we say, " The boy seems very 
well, though he has grown very rapidly." 

The adverbs more and most, less and least 
show degree in comparison with some other 

1. This lad is healthy. 

2. He is more healthy than his brother. 

3. He is the most healthy member of his family. 

On considering the expressions healthy, more 
healthy, most healthy, we see that adjectives and 
adverbs have three chief degrees of comparison : 
the positive degree, the comparative degree, the 
superlative degree. 

What we call the positive degree, represented 
in an adjective like healthy, or an adverb like 


healthily, is not a " degree " at all except in 
comparison with higher or lower degrees. 

The adverbs less and least show what may be 
called negative comparison, or the lower degrees 
of comparison, as in healthy, less healthy, least 

542. Almost any adverb may be compared by 
means of more and most, as rapidly, more rapidly, 
most rapidly. 

Long adjectives, like honorable, difficult, are 
always compared by means of more and most, 
as honorable, more honorable, most honorable. 

Short predicate adjectives are often compared 
by means of more and most, as in " You are most 
kind," " He was more zealous than wise." 

543. Many short adjectives have endings 
showing comparison. Instead of more hind, 
most kind, we usually say kinder, kindest. The 
ending er shows the comparative degree, the 
ending est the superlative degree. 

Adjectives already ending in e add only r, 
st, as rare, rarer, rarest; polite* politer, politest. 

Adjectives ending in y usually change y to 
i before adding er, est, as in holy, holier, holi- 
est ; merry, merrier, merriest. Sly and dry 


keep the y : sly, slyer, slyest ; dry, dryer, dry est. 
But drier and driest are also found. 

Adjectives ending in a single consonant usu- 
ally double the consonant before er, est, as in 
thin, thinner, thinnest ; hot, hotter, hottest. This 
is to preserve the short sound of the vowel. 

544. Several short adjectives, like good, have 
no comparative and superlative endings (ex- 
cept in the speech of little children), but. make 
use of different words for the comparative and 
superlative degrees. Thus we get good, better, 
best ; bad, worse, worst; evil, tvorse, worst; little, 
less, least; many, more, most. 

545. Some adjectives have more or fewer 
than three forms. 

Far has farther and farthest referring to dis- 
tance, and further meaning " additional," as in 
no further use. 

Well, meaning " in health," has the compara- 
tive better, but no superlative except very well, 
extremely well, etc. 

Old has older and oldest, elder and eldest. 
Elder and eldest refer to the age of persons, 
usually relatives, as in the elder son. 

Near has nearer, nearest and next. Next usu- 


ally refers to the nearest following, as in the 
next minute; it may mean u the very nearest," 
as in the next house. 

Late has later and latter, latest and last. 
Later is more common than latter, which ap- 
pears only in such expressions as the latter 
(compared with the former}, these latter days, 
etc. Latest means " the most recent," as in 
the latest news ; last means " final," as in the last 
words of the dying man. Careful speakers do 
not speak of " the last news " if there is to be 
more news on the same subject. 

A few superlatives end in ost, a termination 
which was once est : foremost, hindmost, inmost, 
innermost, uppermost, topmost. 1 

546. It is often said that certain adjectives 
like full, perfect, and round are " incapable of 
comparison," because they are already superla- 
tive in meaning. It is true, in one sense, that 
if a pail is full it can be no fuller. But no 
actual pail is ever exactly full ; no circle ever 
drawn was perfectly round ; nothing save God 

1 These words look as if they ended in the adverb most, 
and their meaning is about the same as if their most were 
the true adverb. But the m comes from an old superlative 
ending -ma, so that -mest, afterwards pronounced -most, is a 
double superlative ending, made up of -ma and -est. 


is perfect. The Bible, by the way, contains the 
expression more perfect (Acts 24 : 22 ; Heb. 
9 : 11). If we were to be theoretically exact in 
all our speech, we could not speak at all. In 
strictness, time never "flies," the sun never 
" rises," nothing ever " happens." 

In common usage it is "perfectly" good 
English and "perfectly" good sense to s&y full, 
fuller, fullest ; round, rounder, roundest; perfect, 
more perfect, most perfect, half -perfect. We need 
not go so far as to say rather perfect, though 
rather round and rather full might be per- 

547. Use of comparative and superlative. The 

comparative degree is used of only two things, 
as in "The tower is taller than the house." 
Either term may consist of several things taken 
as a whole, as in " The tower is taller than the 
cottage, the house, and the church together." 
Either term may consist of one thing after 
another, separated by or or nor, as in "The 
tower is taller than the cottage, the house, or 
the church." 

The superlative degree is preferably used 
when one thing is compared with two or more 
things, as in " The tower at Florence is the 


tallest of all Italian towers." But it is not bad 

English to use the superlative in comparing two 
objects, and certain superlatives, especially best, 
least, and firsts are always so used. We do not 
say " You go in former," but " You go in first." 
We say " The right foot is the better of the 
two," but we also say " Put your best foot fore- 

Such comparisons as " He was greater than 
any man ; lie was the greatest of any man," are 
not logical, though permitted by good usage in 
ordinary conversation. The strictly logical 
construction would be " He is greater than any 
other man ; he is the greatest of all men." 

In Shakspere's time, three hundred years ago, 
it was common to use double comparatives and 
superlatives, as more kinder, most unlrindest cut 
of all. Now the only double comparatives and 
superlatives in use are such words as lesser and 
foremost, the double nature of which is long 
since forgotten. 

Sometimes the superlative has not a true 
superlative force, but means only the degree 
usually indicated by very, as in my dearest 
mother. This fact explains such constructions 
as " I lately saw the queerest, the most curious 
animal ! " Constructions like my dearest mother 


are excellent English. Exclamations like " I 
just saw the funniest thing!" may be pardoned 
in conversational English. 

548. Practise Exercise. From the brack- 
eted words choose the one which is preferable 
in the given construction. 

1. Which do you like [better, best], chocolate or 
vanilla? 2. When two men are great, we should learn 
from both without fretting as to which is the [greater, 
greatest]. 3. You may have the black or the tan pup, 
whichever you like [better, best]. 4. Of these two 
colors, the [darker, darkest] is the [more, most] in 
keeping with the occasion. 5. Going and returning were 
both dangerous, but returning was the [more, most] 

549. Practise Exercise. Choose the pref- 
erable expression from those bracketed. 

1. He is the most honest of [any man, all the men] I 
ever knew. 2. This is the most thrilling story of [any. 
all] that I have read. 3. Csesar was the most remark- 
able of [any Roman, all the Romans]. 4. I like him 
better than [anybody, anybody else] - 1 

550. Written Practise Exercise. Write 
the comparison of the following words. In 

1 Which is the more emphatic expression ? Which is the 
more exact ? Either expression is permissible in conversa- 



some cases either method — comparison by 
adverbs or comparison by endings — is permis- 
sible, the choice depending on the speaker's 
taste, especially as to sound. In such cases 
use the method that you prefer. 















intelligibly surely 







ill 1 



1 There is no adverb illy. 



551. Most English verbs have but three 
forms in everyday use, as call, calls, called. 
These may be named as follows : 

the present form : call, 

the third singular present form : calls, 

the past form : called. 

" Third singular present" means third person, 
singular number, present time. The ending s 
implies three things : 

Third person in the subject : he calls — not I or you ; 
Singular number in the subject : he calls — not we or 

Present time : he calls now, not called yesterday. 

The past form is made from the present by 
inflection, chiefly in one of two ways : 

(1) by adding ed, or d, or t: as in defended, raised, 
burnt ; 

(2) by changing the vowel of the present, as in broke 
from break, and not adding ed, d, or t. 

552. Vowel verbs. Vowel verbs merely 
change the vowel of the present to form the 



past, as break, broke. These verbs are rather 
hard to master, and we have already studied 
forty of the most important, in sections 64 to 164. 
In addition we may study these ten : 












read [pronounced red] 


lit [or lighted] 




stove [or staved] 





553. Consonant verbs. Much the greater 
number of English verbs form the past by 
adding ed, d, or t. Such are called consonant 
verbs, because the past ends in a consonant not 
found in the present. 

The commonest past ending is ed. This is 
usually pronounced like d or t, as in helped; 
but in such words as defended and tented it has 
its full sound. If the present ends in a silent e, 
as bore, only d is added. 

Before ed certain verbs double the final con- 
sonant. The rule is given in all spelling-books, 
and should now be reviewed. 


Some consonant verbs change the vowel, like 
the vowel verbs. Examples are say, said ; flee, 
fled; creep, crept; sleep, slept; hear, heard; 
shoe, shod. 

554. A few verbs make the past with either 
d or t: 

burned or burnt spoiled or spoilt 

learned or learnt kneeled or knelt 

spelled or spelt dreamed or dreamt 

spilled or spilt leaped or leapt 

555. Some verbs now have the same form for 
the present and the past, and are called invari- 
able verbs, or verbs of one form. 

cast, cut, shut, thrust, let, set, shed, 
burst, hurt, hit, quit, rid, split, cost, put. 

556. Little children say cutted, etc. Grown 
persons should avoid the false forms bursted and 
hurted (82). It is right to say 

Yesterday John's gun burst and hurt him. 

557. Practise 


A. Learn the 

following : 

said I 

said we 

said you 

said you 

said he 

said they 


B. Use said (not says) in each blank. 

1. I to you 6. he to me 

2. I to him 7. he to you 

3. I to her 8. he to her 

4. I to them 9. he to us 

5. I to John 10. he to them 

558. Written Practise Exercise. Copy 
the sentences given below. The first group is 
from the Bible, the second from Shakspere. 
Insert lose, lost, loose, or loosed according to the 

A. 1. What is a man profited if he gain the whole 

world and or forfeit his own self? 2. Canst thou 

the bonds of Orion? 3. There is a time to get, and 

a time to . 4. Is not this the feast that I have 

chosen: to the bonds of wickedness? 5. He that 

loveth his life shall it. 

B. 1. If I mine honor, I myself. 2. Thou'lt 

the flood, and, in losing the flood, thy voyage ; 

and, in losing thy voyage, thy master ; and, in losing 

thy master, thy service. 3. [Cupid] his love- 
shaft smartly from his bow. 4. Marcus, [thy bow- 
string] when I bid thee. 5. Loan oft s both itself 

and friend. 

559. Verbals. Verbals are verbal nouns and 
adjectives, as hunting, to hunt, hunted (329-343, 
388-400). Verbals are divided into the parti- 
ciples, the participial noun, and the infinitive. 


560. The verbal in -ing, as hunting, is called 
the present participle or the participial noun, 
according to its use. 

1. Hunting rabbits is sport. [Participial noun.] 

2. That dog is hunting rabbits. [Present participle.] 

561. The present form of the verb, as hunt, 
is often used as a noun, and is called the 


1. I like to hunt rabbits. 

2. To hunt rabbits is fun. 

3. I will go. 

562. The past participle, like broken, or hunted, 
is an adjective conveying the idea of past time. 
In consonant verbs it is the same in form as the 
past — as, hunted. 

1. The dog hunted the hunted rabbit. 

2. The rabbit was hunted. 

In vowel verbs the past participle often adds 
en or n to the past form, as broken. In other 
cases it is like the past verb, as bought. In 
still others the vowel changes again, as in sung. 
See 164. 

563. Is. The forms of is are five : am, is, 
are, was, were. The verbals are to be, being, 


564. Have. The forms of have are have, has, 
had. The verbals are to have, having, had. 

565. Shall. The forms of shall are shall and 
should. It has no verbals. 

566. Win. The older verb will has only 
two forms, will and would, with no verbals. 
Example, He will go. 

There is also a younger verb will. This 
has the form will, wills, 'willed, and the verbals 
to will, ivilling, willed. Example, Grod wills 
that men should dwell in peace. 

567. May. The forms of may are may and 
might. It has no verbals. 

568. Can. The forms of can are can and 
could. It has no verbals. 

569. Must. This verb is invariable, and has 
no verbals. 

570. Verbals are used to complete the mean- 
ing of other verbs, and especially of the six 
verbs is, have, shall, will, may, can, must. We 
have already seen in part how they do this, and 
we shall more fully see in the next chapter. 



571. A form-combination is a sentence consist- 
ing of a personal pronoun and a verb or verb- 
phrase, all viewed as forms. I love combines 
pronoun and verb. I shall love combines pro- 
noun, verb, and verbal. 

A conjugation is an orderly arrangement of 

A simple conjugation consists of twelve sen- 
tences, showing the forms of the verb combined 
with subject-pronouns according to person, 
number, time present, and time past. This is 
called the conjugation of the verb proper. 

572. Call. The simple conjugation of call is 
as follows : 


Singular Plural 

1. I call 1. we call 

2. you call 2. you call 

3. he calls 3. they call 








I called 

1. we called 


you caller 

2. you called 


he called 

3. they called 


Have. The 

simple conjugation 

is as follows : 





I have 

1. we have 


you have 

2. you have 


he has 

3. they have 


I had 

1. we had 


you had 

2. you had 


he had 

3. they had 



The simple conjugation of 

thus : 





I am 

1. we are 


you are 

2. you are 


he is 

3. they are 


I was 

1. we were 


you were 

2. you were 


he was 

3. they were 


575. Right and wrong combinations. When 
a verb suggests a different person and number 
from its subject, as in He are, it disagrees with 
the subject in person and number, and the com- 
bination is bad English. 

The third singular present verb, as calls, must 
have a singular subject in the third person. 
Noun-subjects are considered as being in the 
third person, like he and she. 

The present and past forms, as call, called, 
may for convenience be regarded as singular or 
plural verbs according as the subject is singu- 
lar or plural. And a plural subject must have 
a plural verb. 

A verb must not disagree with its subject in 
number and person. 1 

576. After There we say are, if the subject is 
distinctly plural in sense (17): 

1. There are two of them. 

2. There are John and his father. 

1 To the Teacher. If agree means to vary form, then 
the assertion that English verbs agree with their subjects is 
more than doubtful. Until there is some consensus among 
scientific grammarians as to what " agreement," "mood," 
"tense," and "case" shall mean in the grammar of unin- 
flected languages, the best we can do is to avoid these mys- 
terious words as much as possible. 


But suppose we exclaim, There s John! before 
we see the father. We add, and his father. 
There's John and his father ! is in theory bad 
English, and such an expression would not 
appear in the work of a careful writer. hi 
ordinary conversation it would pass muster, 
but in general it is well to cultivate the very 
difficult sound There are, 

577. Pronouns of different persons or num- 
bers are often separated by or or nor. Then 
the verb usually agrees in person and number 
with the nearest. 

1. Neither he nor I am going. 

2. Either I or you are going. * 

578. Collective nouns (520) take a singular 
or a plural verb according to the thought of the 

The pronoun none is literally no-one, and 
usually takes a singular verb. But none are is 
also good English. 

579. Each, every, everyone, anyone, either, 
neither require singular verbs, as was shown in 

1 Such constructions can often be avoided, as was shown 
in 24. 


580. Who, which, that take a singular or a 
plural verb, according to the antecedent's 

1. He was a man who was always in debt. 

2. He was one of those men who are always in debt. 

581. Two subjects joined by and may not 
take a singular verb except in a few cases, like 

1. Bread and butter is good. 

2. His end and aim is victory. 

3. A thread and needle is needed. 

4. The cup and saucer is broken. 

582. With is a preposition, not a conjunction. 
It suggests a singular verb : 

The king with all his army is marching hither. 

583. Practise Exercise. Insert is or are 
according to the meaning of the subject. 

1. Much pains required to make a good composi- 
tion. 2. Great pains required to make a good 

composition. 3. The crowd all shouting. 4. The 

whole crowd shouting. 5. The committee re- 
porting unanimously. 6. The committee not agreed 

among themselves. 7. The United States a republic. 

8. The United States different from each other in 

size. 9. His clothes neat. 10. The die cast. 

11. The dice loaded. 12. The data insufficient. 

13. The phenomenon — strange. 14. The phenomena 


strange. 15. Parentheses usually set off by 

commas. 16. Parentheses sometimes curves [( )]. 

17. Parentheses a name given either to curves [( )] 

or to phrases, clauses, sentences that are parenthetical in 

sense. 18. Edible fungi hard to distinguish from 

poisonous. 19. The memoranda lost. 20. The 

annals of China partly burned in Pekin. 21. Bil- 
liards a game. 22. Billiards played on a cloth- 
covered table, with ivory balls. 23. Mathematics 

an important study. 24. Measles contagious. 25. No 

news good news. 26. News collected by re- 
porters. 27. Alms given to beggars. 28. Eaves 

a part of the house. 29. Riches winged. 

30. The summons long delayed. 31. Neither an- 
swer correct. 32. Neither this answer nor the 

other answer correct. 33. The formation of these 

rocks very curious. 34. The strata of rocks here 

very curious. 35. Neither the eaves nor the shingles 

injured by the tree that fell. 36. A black and 

a red oak growing side by side. 37. The king of 

France and forty thousand men marching up the 

hill. 38. The king of France, with forty thousand men, 

marching up the hill. 39. Two and two four. 

40. The scissors dull. 41. Gray trousers -often 

worn with a black frock coat. 42. A pair of scissors 

a convenient thing to have. 43. Ten dollars lying 

on the table. 44. Ten dollars a certain sum. 

45. " Pickwick Papers " a story by Dickens. 

46. Either John or James the man. 47. Half the 

day ■ — — gone. 48. Half the apples — — gone. 

584. Practise Exercise. Insert is or are, 
has or have, according to the number of the 


1. Everyone going. 2. Everyone gone. 

3. Each of us his faults. 4. All of us - — — going. 

5. Not all gold that glitters. 6. Neither John nor 

he there. 7. Hers is one of the sweetest voices that 

been heard in this school. 8. The best of those 

which been found is the smallest. 9. " Are you the 

man that apples to sell? " 10. Every one kin 

to the rich man. 11. Each of these states a part of 

the Union. 12. None so blind as he that will not 

see. 13. If a person — — going to the woods, he 1 needs 

a rubber coat. 14. If any one the chance to go to 

Europe, he 1 ought to go. 15. When a person sick, 

he 1 likes a bit of jelly. 

585. Simple and complete conjugations. The 

simple conjugation (571) is that of the verb 
proper. Its twelve forms consist of combina- 
tions of pronouns with the forms of the verb 
(which are usually three, as call, calls, called). 

But there are a great many verb-phrases, like 
shall call. These enable us to express ideas 
that cannot be expressed by the verb proper. 
So we get what may be called the fuller or com- 
plete conjugation of the verb, or more properly 
of the verbal. In I shall call the true verb is 
shall, while call is the verbal noun. But we 
sav that / shall call is a combination of call. 

The complete conjugation of a verb expresses 
ideas of person, number, time, "voice," and 

1 Remember section 538. 


" mood." We proceed to examine the combina- 
tions that show time, " voice," and "mood." 

586. The six distinctions of time. Present 
and past time are shown by verb-forms (551). 
Four other distinctions are shown by verb- 

Thus any idea of action may be asserted with 
six distinctions of time : 

1. I call 

2. I called 

3. I shall call 

4. I have called 

5. I had called 

6. I shall have called 

1 . I call asserts the action as happening now. 

2. / called asserts the action as happening in 
the past. 

3. I shall call asserts the action as happening 
in the future. 

4. I have called asserts the action as now 
past, or now perfected. 

5. I had called asserts the action as finished 
by a certain past time. 

6. / shall have called asserts the action as 
finished by a certain future time. 


We may name the six combinations or tenses 1 

thus : 

Present : I call 
Past : I called 
Future : I shall call 

Present perfect : I have called 

Past perfect : I had called 

Future perfect : I shall have called 

The six tenses of is are as follows : 

Present : I am 
Past : I was 
Future : I shall be 

Present perfect : I have been 
Past perfect : I had been 
Future perfect : I shall have been 

587. The present. The present is a time on 
which we cannot exactly put our finger. It 
becomes the past even while we speak of it. 
So we use the word present in rather a vague 
manner; sometimes it covers years, as when 
we say I go to New York once a year. In fact 
the idea of the present almost disappears in 
such a sentence. The mere idea of a custom 

1 In this book, tense, when used, may signify any verb, 
verb-phrase, form-sentence, or group of form-sentences, 
viewed with relation to time. See 575, footnote. 


Instead of the simple present verb we may 
have a present verb-phrase, as in I am talking. 
Such a phrase, consisting of the verb am and a 
predicate participle (383), is called a progressive 
present. 1 It arrests the action in the very pro- 
cess. We say The sun is streaming across the 
room, although light travels 186,000 miles in a 

In common talk we may use present forms to 
refer to the future, as in I go to town to-morrow. 
The progressive present, as in / am going to 
town to-morrow, is very often used as a future. 
And the curious combination I am going to go 
to town is also common. In all these cases the 
speaker imagines the future as already here, 
just as when he says Gro! now. 

588. The future. 2 The regular future forms 
are combinations of shall and will with a verbal 
noun (333). It requires some skill to use these 
phrases correctly, as the verb changes from shall 

1 Every tense has its progressive combination, as, I was 
talking, I shall be talking, etc. 

2 To the Teacher. The authoritative work on the his- 
tory of the English future is Professor E. A. Blackburn's, 
" The English Future." It is out of print, but can be found 
in many college libraries. 


to will according to the person of the subject- 

589. The pure future. The pure future makes 
a quiet announcement of what is to happen. 

It uses shall with the first person, will with 
the second and third : 

1. I shall die 1. we shall die 

2. you will die 2. you will die 

3. he will die 3. they will die 

These forms are shortened to 

1. Ish'lldie 1. we sh'll die 

2. you'll die 2. you'll die 

3. he'll die 3. they'll die 

The negative forms of the pure future are 
correctly contracted in two ways, the second 
being very informal : 

1. I sh'll not die 1. I shan't die 

2. you'll not die 2. you won't * die 

3. he'll not die 3. he won't die 

1. we sh'll not die 1. we shan't die 

2. you'll not die 2. you won't die 

3. they'll not die 3. they won't die 

1 Won't is a correct contraction of woll (an old form of 
will) and not. 



590. Practise Exercise. A. Repeat from 
memory the following : 


1. I shall be happy to see 

2. you will be happy to 
see him 

3. he will be happy to 
see him 


1. I shall not be happy 
to see him 

2. you will not be happy 
to see him 

3. he will not be happy 
to see him 

1. we shall be happy to 
see him 

2. you will be happy to 
see him 

3. they will be happy to 
see him 

1. we shall not be 
happy to see him 

2. you will not be happy 
to see him 

3. they will not be 
happy to see him 


1. f sh'll be happy to 
see him 

2. you'll be happy to see 

3. he'll be happy to see 

1. we sh'll be happy to 
see him 

2. you'll be happy to see 

3. they'll be happy to 
see him 


1. I sh'll not be happy 
to see him 

2. you'll not be happy 
to see him 

3. he'll not be happy to 
see him 

1. we sh'll not be happy 
to see him 

2. you'll not be happy 
to see him 

3. they'll not be happy 

to see him 



1. I shan't be happy to 
see him 

2. you won't be happy 
to see him 

3. he won't be happy to 
see him 

1. we shan't be happy 
to see him 

2. you won't be happy 
to see him 

3. they won't be happy 
to see him 

B. Give all the sentences of A, placing before 
each the words "I'm quite sure that," thus: 
"I'm quite sure that I shall be happy to see 

0. Give all the affirmative sentences of A, 
placing before each the words " Are you quite 
sure that," thus : " Are you quite sure that I 
shall be happy to see him ? " 

D. Give all the negative sentences of A, 
placing before each the words " I'm afraid," 
thus : " I'm afraid I shall not be happy to see 

E. Give all the affirmative sentences of A, 
placing before each the words " Let's suppose,' 
thus : " Let's suppose I shall be happy to see 


591. Practise Exercise. Use all the forms 
of (A) before each of the expressions of (B). 

(A) 1. I sh'll be 1. I sh'll not be 

2. you'll be 2. you'll not be 

3. he'll be 3. he'll not be 

1. we sh'll be 1. we sh'll not be 

2. you'll be 2. you'll not be 

3. they'll be 3. they'll not be 


1. I shan't be 

2. you won't be 

3. he won't be 

1. we shan't be 

2. you won't be 

3. they won't be 

(B) (1) sorry ; (2) glad to come ; (3) at home then ; 
(4) in a hurry; (5) afraid to say so; (6) hasty; (7) on 
the watch; (8) ashamed to try ; (9) alarmed; (10) look- 
ing for trouble; (11) willing to confess; (12) stay; 
(13) likely to stay; (14) coming often; (15) late again; 
(16) surprised; (17) sure; (18) severe with him; 
(19) fooled again; (20) expected to speak; (21) astonished 
at anything new; (22) expecting you; (23) through by 
four ; (24) in town at Christmas ; (25) worried ; 
(26) wretched if it rains; (27) drowned if we upset; 
(28) tired out by then ; (29) mightily pleased; (30) asleep 
before that; (31) obliged to stay; (32) compelled to 
request ; (33) forced to leave ; (34) required to report ; 
(35) excused; (36) less afraid after this; (37) worse off 
than at present; (38) very far away. 


592. Practise Exercise. Use all the forms 
of (A) before each of the expressions of (B). 

(A) 1. I sh'll 1. I sh'll not 

2. you'll 2. you'll not 

3. hell 3. hell not 

1. we sh'll 1. we sh'll not 

2. you'll 2. you'll not 

3. they'll 3. they'll not 


1. I shan't 

2. vou won't 

3. he won't 

1. we shan't 

2. you won't 

3. they won't 

(B) (1) arrive at twelve; (2) reach Chicago on time ; 
(3) get to Boston by six; (4) hope for much better 
things ; (5) feel badly ; (6) like to go ; (7) expect you ; 
(8) look for you to-morrow : (9) think it strange ; 
(10) certainly try ; (11) think so ; (12) stay, probably ; 
(13) feel pleased; (14) escape, probably ; (15) have to 
go; (16) get through in time; (17) get left; (18) tell 
the truth, of course ; (19) need to fear ; (20) have to ex- 
plain ; (21) worry ; (22) show surprise ; (23) succeed 
without trying; (24) win without an effort; (25) make 
a fuss ; (26) make money ; (27) make a desperate effort ; 
(28) wonder what the trouble is; (29) ask why; 
(30) enlist ; (31) fight ; (32) break the news ; (33) give 
in without a struggle ; (34) take part ; (35) blame you ; 
(36) rebel. 


593. The compliant future. If, now, a person 
says, Will you lend me a knife ? and you reply, 
/ toill, how is will used with I and you ? It 
expresses a willing mood. 

Note the following questions and answers : 

1. Will you lend me a knife? I will, with pleasure. 

2. Will you go with us ? We will, gladly. 

3. Will you forgive me ? I will. 

4. Will you please give him another chance? Yes, I 

5. You won't let it worry you, will you? I won't, if 
you wish it shouldn't. 

Another name for willingness is compliance. 
Will and wont are here compliant. They either 
grant a wish, or they consult a person concern- 
ing his willingness. 

Sometimes will is thus used even when the 
other person's wish is only supposed : 

1. I will close the window, if you wish. 

2. I will assign you this desk, if you like. 

3. We will study the next lesson to-morrow. 

The compliant future uses will in questions and 
answers as to willingness. 

Note to the Teacher. / will lend you my knife is not 
quite the same as I am willing to lend you my knife. Pll 
gladly come is just as much a future as / shall be glad to 
come ; it is a future and something more. All " futures " 
contain present opinion, determination, or consent. 



594. Practise Exercise. Insert shall or 
will according as the pure future or the compli- 
ant future is needed with Tot we. 

1. Will you be our guest at the holidays ? I T 

with pleasure. 2. Won't you close the door ? Certainly, 

I . 3. Shall you answer his letter? I . 4. I 

answer this letter, if you will let me. 5. Shall I 

close the window? Yes, please, if you ... 6. I 

take you for a drive, if you will go. 7. Well, then, we 

change the subject, if you please. 8. Did you say 

your book was lost ? I lend you mine ? I 

gladly, if you would like it. 9. I put the room to 

rights, if nobody objects. 10. I just tie the boat, if 

you will wait. 

595. A compliant sentence, like We'll gladly 
do so, means about the same as We slill be happy 
to do so. But we cannot say We'll be happy to 
do so. That would mean that we consent to be 
happy ! 

596. The determined future. Suppose now 
that the speaker does not comply with a re- 
quest, but refuses. He says, J won't do as you 
wish; J will do as I choose. He pronounces 
will and won't strongly, as if against opposition. 

In like manner you shall and he shall express 
the speaker's determination. You shall hear me 
means I am determined that you shall hear me. 



The determined future uses emphatic will in 
the first person, and emphatic shall in the 
second and third, thus reversing the verbs of 
the pure future. 

Learn the 

Determined future of go 


1. I WILL gO 

2. you SHALL go 

3. he SHALL go 

1. we WILL go 

2. you SHALL go 

3. they shall go 


1. I will not go 

2. you shall not go 

3. he shall not go 

1 . we will not go 

2. you shall not go 

3. they shall not go 


1. I'll NOT gO 

2. you sh'll not go 

3. he sh'll not go 

1. we'll not go 

2. you sh'll not go 

3. they sh'll not go 


1. I won't go 

2. you shan't go 

3. he shan't go 

1. we won't go 

2. you shan't go 

3. they shan't go 


597. Summary. Do not use 1 will or Til 
unless jo a. wish to express a willing or a deter- 
mined mood. Don't say I'll be glad. Say I 
slill be glad. You are simply foretelling your 

Cultivate a habit of saying I sJtll instead of 
Tm going to. Tm going to be there is passable 
English, but / shall be there is better. Tm 
going to be sixteen to-morrow is poor English, 
and Til be sixteen is worse. Say I slill be 

598. In questions, the correct verb for the 
first person is always shall. 

1. Shall I go? Yes, you had better. * 

2. SJiall I go? Yes, please. 

3. Shan't I help you ? No, thank you. 

4. Shalll be chosen, I wonder? [addressed to one's 

5. Shall I go? [addressed to one's self ] . Yes, I will. 

6. Shall we all help him ? he seems to need help. 

In other questions, the correct verb is shall 
or will according as the speaker should answer 
shall or will. 

1. Shall you be there? I shall. [Pure future.] 

2. Will you lend me a knife ? I will. [Compliant 

1 Had better is an older and stronger form than would 


3. Shall you try to see him again? I think I shall. 
[Pure future.] 

4. Won't you try to see him again ? I will. [Com- 
pliant future.] 

5. You won't go, as I understand it. No, I won't. 
[Determined future.] 

6. You probably won't go, shall you? No, I shan't. 
[Pure future.] 

599. Practise Exercise. Use the correct 
form of the pure future in the following ques- 
tions : 

1 . you go to the country this summer ? 2. 

you probably be through by four ? 3. go to see the 

opera when it comes ? 4. be going? 5. go to 

Europe next year? 6. get a new dress for Com- 
mencement? 7. you do as they wish? 8. 

try for that prize? 9. you make any excuse? 

10. you tell the truth? 

600. Should and would. These verbs are, in 
form, the past of shall and will, but they have 
lost their past meaning. They have two chief 
uses : 1 

1. As pure futures after a past verb of say- 
ing or thinking : 

1 In addition to these two chief uses, there are three 
minor ones: (1) Should sometimes means ought. (2) Would 
sometimes means past determination (He would go, in spite 
of all). (3) Would sometimes means a past custom (He 
would go nearly every day). 


1. John said that he should be sixteen next week. 

2. John said that James would be seventeen. 

3. John said that he should be happy to go. 

2. As conditional futures : 

1. If it should rain, we should stay at home. 

2. If he would only yield, all would be well. 

3. I should like it if it should rain. 

4. I said that I should like to go if I got a chance. 

601. Should and would generally follow the 
rules for shall and will. 

602. Practise Exercise. Insert the pure 
future after the past verbs of saying or think- 
ing : 

1. He said of himself that he go. 2. Jane said 

she try to go. 3. Did you say that you be 

glad to go? 4. Did he say that he be glad to go? 

5. Did he say that he be sixteen next week? 6. I 

was afraid that I miss my train. 7. He said he 

miss his train. 8. They said they feared they 

miss their train. 9. They thought it rain. 10. John 

asked whether he go too. 

603. Practise Exercise. Insert the con- 
ditional future. 1 

1. you probably go if you had a chance? 2. — — 

you be glad to go ? 3. you like to go ? 4. you 

1 Should you ? is often correct in questions where most 
people say Would you ? I should like and Should you like ? 
are better than / would like and Would you like 9 


like some butter ? 5. How you like to go ? 

G. What, you say, is the matter? 7. Do you think 

he consent to go, if lie were asked ? 8. If it 

rain, you still be willing to go? 9. If you see 

a bear coming, what you probably do ? 10. If you 

would try, you certainly succeed. 

604. May and can. May usually asserts per- 
mission. 1 Can usually asserts power to do. 

Examples : 

1. I may go, if I wish. 

2. I can go, if I try. 

Therefore in asking, granting, or stating per- 
mission the proper verb is may. Examples: 

1. May I go? You may. 

2. I mayn't go. 

The question Can I go? inquires whether the 
speaker himself has the power to go. A boy 
asks himself, or someone else, 

1. Can I jump as far as that? 

2. Can I get over the ice without breaking through ? 

There are times when either can or may is 
proper. If a bear had you pinned to the earth, 
and a friend shouted Why dont you come on ? it 

1 When may asserts permission received, it is a present 
permission for a future act. Often the permissive idea is 
absent. Then we have a doubtful future, as in i" donH 
really know whether or not I shall go, but I may. 


would make little difference whether you said 
I maynt or I can't. 

605. Practise Exercise. Fill the blanks 
with can, can't, may, or maynt, according to 
your best judgment. 

1. 1 ask you to come and see me? 2. 1 bor- 
row a knife? 3. we get across that rotten log? 

4. we accomplish so much ? 5. 1 say that you 

consent? 6. you come out for a walk? I mean, is 

your father willing? 7. No, I . Father says no. 

8. you come out for a walk? I mean, are you well 

enough? 9. No, I . My cold is too bad. 10. 

you come along? Are you through studying? 11. No, 

I . I haven't finished. 12. you get down? 

13. No, I — — . I'm caught in the branches. 14. Why 

don't you hurry? you go faster without hurting 

your foot? 15. I hurry. The doctor won't let me. 

606. Might and could. These verbs are in 
form the past of may and can, and are often 
so used in object clauses. 

1. He saw that he might depart at that moment. 

2. I found that now I could open the door. 

In most statements might have and could have 
form the past of may and can. 

1. I might have gone. 

2. I could have gone. 

3. I wish I might or could have gone. 


Might and could often refer to the future 
after a past verb. 

1. I told him that I might possibly go. 

2. He said that such accidents could never happen 

Might can refer to the future from a present 
point of view. 

You might possibly find some trout there to-morrow. 

In such a case might presents the future act 
(as expressed in the verbal find) as less probable 
than may would present it. 

607. What is meant by "mood." When we 
assert anything, we always have a certain atti- 
tude of mind toward our assertion. We speak 
positively, or doubtfully, or wishfully, or com- 
mandingly, or willingly, or obstinately, or sadly, 
or happily. These attitudes of mind are called 
feelings or moods. 1 

By far the commonest mood of mind is 
the positive. This is what leads us to make 
sentences. We assert that such and such a 

1 To the Teacher. The Latin modus is a bad translation 
of the Greek grammarians' dcadto-is i/vxys, or mental atti- 
tude. Our word mood ( < Teut. moda) comes nearer the 
true idea. To speak of "manner of assertion" is to leave 
us as much in the dark as before. Mood is first a feeling — 
in grammar as in life — and then a form. 


thing is, or is not, does or does not. Our very 
definition of a verb is, "a word that asserts." 
The verb makes the speaker responsible. 

If we wish to speak less positively, we do not 
change the form of the verb proper, but we 
use a group-verb or a mood adverb (403). 
Thus we say 

1. He is there. 

2. Perhaps he is there. 

3. He may perhaps be there. 

If we wish to speak willingly or obstinately 
of a future act, we vary the use of shall and will 


We might, indeed, set up an array of hard 

names for the numerous form-combinations that 

express our feelings toward an act. Take the 

act of seeing, for example. By the use of mood 

adverbs (like perhaps), mood adjectives (like 

glad), and mood verbs (like shall and will) we 

could get a long list of moods : 

The emphatic : I do see. 

The more probable : I shall probably see. 

The less probable : I may possibly see. 

The potential : I can see. 

The permissive : I may see — if I wish. 

The obligative : I ought to see. 

The necessary : I must see, or I've got to see. 

The happy : I'm glad to see. 

The sad : I'm sorry to see. 


But this would be an unprofitable business, 
because in English there is no end to such com- 

608. In strictness, there are only two moods 
of the English verb in common use at the 
present time : the assertive (or indicative) and 
the imperative. Verbs used in commands are 
said to be imperative, as See! 

What we call the compliant and the deter- 
mined future are only assertive futures plus the 
ideas of willingness and determination. 

609. There is one other curious change of 
form that deserves attention. Note the italic 
verbs in the following sentences : 

1. If I saw how to get word to John, I would send for 

2. I wish I saw how to get word to him. 

In these sentences a past indicative form is 
used for the present, to state a present wish or 
supposition that is contrary to fact. 

But in such sentences we use were for was. 

1. If John were here now, I should like it, 

2. I wish John were here now, 


Were is here called a past "■ subjunctive " 
form, used with a present meaning. English 
verbs once had a "subjunctive " mood, consist- 
ing of special forms used in dependent clauses. 
A very few subjunctive forms remain in spoken 
English. Examples : 

1. If John were here, I should be glad. 

2. I wish he were here. 

3. Heaven be praised for such news ! 

4. God grant it be true ! 

Sometimes we say I wish John was here. It 
is better English to say I wish John were here. 
After if ? asif, and verbs of wishing, the sub- 
junctive were is either singular or plural. 

610. Active and passive combinations. Verbs 
of action represent the subject as acting, as I 
strike. But group-verbs may represent the 
subject as either acting or suffering, thus: 

1. I' am striking. jl: 

2. I am being struck. 

3. I am struck. 

Thus we get two kinds of combinations. Active 
combinations represent the subject as acting on 
something, r Passive combinations represent the 
subject _as acted on, :. _ ,.,._.. 

The _ distinction between active and passive 
subject is usually called a distinction of- voice. 


But it is not necessary to speak of two voices of 
the English verb, so long as we speak of active 
and passive combinations. 

611. The complete conjugation. We have seen 
that the simple conjugation of a verb consists 
of subject-pronouns combined with the true 
verb-forms, arranged with reference to person, 
number, time present, and time past. 

The complete conjugation gives the active 
and passive combinations, arranged according 
to six distinctions of time. This complete 
conjugation furthermore recognizes two chief 
distinctions of mood, namely the indicative and 
the imperative ; also two lesser distinctions of 
mood, namely willingness and determination as 
added to the future indicative. 

As a matter of convenience, the complete 
conjugation does not include any of the forms 
called potential, obligative, emphatic, etc. (607). 
Neither does it include the progressive forms 
(587), although these are very common. 

612. An outline of a complete conjugation 
consists of one of its three persons — say the 
first or third. The complete outline of see 
would contain eighteen forms, as follows ; 







Pure future 

Compliant future 
. Determined future 
C Present perfect : I have seen 

Past perfect : I had seen 

Indicative Mood 


: I see I am seen 

: I saw 

: I shall see 

I will see 

I will see 

I was seen 
I shall be seen 
I will be seen 
I will be seen 
I have been seen 
I had been seen 

Future perfect : I shall have seen I shall have been seen 

Imperative Mood 

Active Passive 

Present or future : see ! be seen ! 

613. Verbals do not properly form a part of 
the conjugation, since none of them can take 
a subject. But it is interesting to see how 
phrase-verbals may be developed by help from 
the verbals of have and be. 

Verbal Nouns of See 


Present: to see 
to be seeing 
Present perfect : to have seen 
to have been 


to be seen 

to be being seen 

to have been seen 


Verbal Adjectives of See 

Active Passive 

Present : seeing being seen 

Present perfect : having seen having been seen 

Past : seen 



614. Certain forms of words, like thou and 
thee, were once in daily use, but now belong to 
the older style. Such forms are still employed 
in solemn or poetic language. We hear them 
in church, and we read them in the Bible or in 

615. The King James version of the Bible 
(published 1611) is the book which has chiefly 
preserved these forms, and they are best learned 
by a study of this book. 1 Indeed, other books 
written about 1611 do not always present the 
same forms as the Bible. For example, ye is 
always a subject-pronoun in the Bible, whereas 
in Shakspere it is often an object. In the Bible 
we never find the adjective its, but always his or 
her, referring to objects. Its howeyer occurs a 

1 To the Teacher. Young persons often feel the need 
of a surer grasp of biblical grammar than they can get with- 
out definite drill. Such drill should be given in Bible classes 
rather than in the public school. 




few times in Shakspere, and often in the works 
of John Florio, a friend of Shakspere. 

616. The older conjugation has several inflec- 
tions in the form of verbs. In most verbs the 
indicative has the second singular ending -st, 
and the third singular ending -th. But after 
if we find be for am, art, is, and are, and the -st 
and -th of other verbs do not appear. 

617. Older forms of the verb Be. 




( 1. I am 

we are 

Present j 2. thou art 
I 3. he is 

ye are 

they are 

Subjunctive x 



1. (if) I be 

(if) we be 

Present - 

2. (if) thou be 

(if) ye be 

. 3. (if) he be 

(if) they be 




' 1. I was 

we were 

2. thou wast 

ye were 



k 3. he was 

they were 

1 The subjunctive forms are so called because they oc- 
curred in subjoined or dependent clauses. 




Singular Plural 

1. if I were if we were 

■12. if thou were if ye were 

13. if he were if they were 

618. Older forms of the verb Love. 





f 1 - 

I love 

we love 

Present \ 2. 

thou lovest 

ye love 


he loveth 


they love 



f L 

(if) I love 

we love 

Present j 2. 


(if) thou love 

ye love 

(if) he love 

they love 




f- L 

I loved 

we loved 

Past j 2. 

thou loved st 

ye loved 


he loved 

they loved 

1 The past subjunctive often referred to present time, in 
conditions or wishes contrary to fact (609). In a condition 
this form often occurred without if, the order of subject and 
predicate being reversed, as were I, tvere thou, etc. We can 
still say loere I you, were I going, etc., without sounding 
very antiquated. 



Singular Plural 

(1. (if) I loved we loved 

2. (if) thou loved ye loved 

3. (if) he loved they loved 




f 1. I am loved 
Present \ 2. thou art loved 
I 3. he is loved 


we are loved 
ye are loved 
they are loved 


Singular Plural 

f 1. (if) I be loved we be loved 

Present i 2. (if) thou be loved ye be loved 

[3. (if) he be loved they be loved 



f 1. I was loved 
Past i 2. thou wast loved 
I 3. he was loved 

we were loved 
ye were loved 
they were loved 



{ 1. (if) T were loved 
Past \ 2. (if) thou were loved 
I 3. (if) he were loved 

we were loved 
ye were loved 
they were loved 



619. It is not necessary to give every com- 
bination of he or love to show the very great 
changes that have taken place in the ordinary 
forms of English verbs and pronouns in the last 
three hundred years. These changes tend to 
make English a simpler and more flexible lan- 
guage. They are mostly changes for the better. 

620. Older uses of shall and will. In the 
King James Bible the modern distinctions be- 
tween shall and ivill are not regularly made. 
Shall is often used as a pure future, with any 
subject-pronoun. Will is sometimes a pure fut- 
ure (as in Job 14 : 7), but oftener means wish. 



The Numbers refer to Sections 

a or an, 379. 

Absolute noun, 392; an awk- 
ward construction, 393. 

Action, forms of verbs of, 64- 

Active voice. See Form-com- 

Adjectives, articles, 379; as 
nouns, 369; assuming, 383; 
comparison of, 511-550 ; dem- 
onstrative, 374; descriptive, 
373; gender in, 539; indefi- 
nite, 377; interrogative, 375, 
378; numeral, 376; pos- 
sessive, 375; predicate, 383, 
385; produced, 385. 

Adjective clauses, 367, 461. 

Adjective modifiers. See Geni- 
tives, Appositives, Adjec- 
tives, Adjective clauses, Ad- 
jective phrases. 

Adjective phrases, 422. 

Adverbs, comparison of, 541- 
550; defined, 401; of degree, 
402; demonstrative, 406; 
interrogative, 406 ; with link- 
verbs, 409-412; of manner, 
402; of mood, 403; nouns as, 
404; numeral, 406; of place, 
402; position of, 418; of 
time, 402. 

Adverbial, clauses, 462, 463; 
phrases, 422. 

after, 430. 

Afterthoughts, how punctu- 
ated, 298. 

''Agreement" of subject and 
verb, 17; 575. 

ain't, 9; correct equivalents 
of, 25-28. 

also, 219, 453. 

although, 468. 

Analysis, general, 471-480; 
general, defined, 478; less 
general, 327, 386; confined 
to one part of speech, 306, 
311, 317, 321, 323, 327, 328, 
335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 341, 
343, 347, 355, 360, 370, 372, 
384, 387, 389, 408, 425. 

and, punctuation before, 219, 
288, 295, 453, 495. 

Antecedents, 346. 

Apostrophe, the, 324, 525-527. 

appear. See Link-verbs. 

Applied grammar, 6. See 
Practise Exercises. 

Appositives, 322. 

aren't, 10, 27. 

around, 431. 

Articles [term not employed], 

as, 465, 466; punctuation be- 
fore, 241, 496. 

Assuming adjectives, 383. 

Asterisks, 490. 

at, 432. 

awake, 70, 71. 

awful, awfully, 417. 




The Numbers refer to Sections 


bad, badly, 410, 411, 412, 415. 

Base-words, 473, 474. 

be, forms of, 563; contractions 
of, 25-46; conjugation, sim- 
ple, of, 574; older forms of, 
617; tenses of, 586. 

because, 466; punctuation be- 
fore, 236, 496. 

because of, 428. 

become. See Link-verbs. 

before, 465. 

begin, 72-75. 

beside, besides, 435, 453. 

besides, punctuation of, 498. 

between, 436. 

Bible, King James, 614-620. 

Blackburn, F. A., 588. 

blow, 76, 77. 

Brackets, 489. 

break, 78, 79. 

bring, 80, 81. 

broken, 84. 

burst, 82-84. 

but, 437, 453; punctuation be- 
fore, 288, 290, 292, 454, 495. 

call, simple conjugation of, 572. 

aan, 604-606. 

can't, 10. 

Cardinals, 363. 

Case, possessive adjectives as 
genitive — of pronouns, 539. 
See Constructions. 

catch, 85, 86. 

Cause, conjunctions of, 466. 

certain, 364, 377. 

Child's. : fault in punctuation 
(misuse of comma for pe- 
riod), 197-230,491. 

Class-nouns, 312. 

Clauses, causal, .466 [ conced- 

ing, 468; dependent, 231-245, 
367 ; independent, 197-230; of 
purpose, 469; relative, 367 ; 
of result, 469. 

Collective nouns, 520, 578, 583. 

Colon, 487. 

Comma, general uses, 492 ; gen- 
eral rule, 500; special rules, 
494-499; see also 194-1%, 
236, 244, 267, 279, 280, 287, 
288-292, 295, 298. 

Comparative and superlative, 
use of, 547. 

Comparison, of adjectives and 
adverbs, 541-550. 

come, 87-90. 

Complex sentences, 234. 

Compliant future. See Future. 

Compound, subjects, predi- 
cates, and sentences, 284- 
300; words, 512. 

Conceding clauses, 468. 

Concession, conjunctions of, 

Condensed statements, 495, 

Conditional, sentences, 467 ; fu- 
ture, 600. 

Conjugations, defined, 571 ; 
simple, 572-574; complete, 

Conjunctions, defined, 452 ^de- 
pendent, 459-469; independ- 
ent, 453. 

Connectives. See Conjunctions. 

considering, 395. 

Consonant verbs, 553, 555-558. 

Constructions, of nouns, 326 ; 
of pronouns, 352-354, 536. 

consequently, 453, 454. 

Contrary to fact statements, 
tense-mood in, 609. 

Contractions, of be, 25-46; of. 



The Numbers refer to Sections 

have, 47-62 ; of shall and will, 

589-592, 596. 
Conversational usage. See 

Coordinate conjunctions. See 

Conjunctions, independent. 
Copula." See Link-verbs. 
Curves, the, 280, 488, 498. 


Dash, 280, 486, 498. 

Declarative sentence r 251. 

Degree, adverbs of, 402, 541. 

Demonstrative pronouns, 361; 
adjectives, 374 ; adverbs, 406. 

Dependent, clauses, 231-245, 
367; purpose, 469; result, 
469; general rule for punc- 
tuating, 496. 

Derivation, 5ll. 

Descriptive adjectives, 373. 

Determined future. See Fu- 

die, pure future of, 589. 

Direct, questions, 366; state- 
ments, 460. 

do, 91-93. 

doesn't, 10, 92. 

don't, 10. 

drink, 94-97. 


each, etc., with singular verb, 

eat, 98-100. 

Educated men, 11, 12. 

either, with singular verbs, 21, 
24; uses of, 453,455; position 
of, 457. 

Elements of the sentence, 301- 
620; summarized, 471-480; 
independent, 272-283. 

Emphatic, self-pronouns, 358; 
possessive pronoun, 375. 

Endings, personal, 551, 616. 

Etymology [term not used]. 
See Forms of words. 

every , 364, 377. 

Exclamation point, 484. 

Exclamatory, sentence, 251. 

Exercises. See Practise Exer- 
cises, and Analysis. 

Factitive complement [term 
not employed]. See Name 
produced and Adjective pro- 

Feels, with adjectives and ad- 
verbs, 410. 

Firm-names, how punctuated, 

now, 101. 

flij, 102, 103. 

for, 438; punctuation before, 

Forms of words, 506-620. See 
Nouns, Pronouns, Adjec- 
tives, Adverbs, Verbs. 

Form-combinations, defined, 
571 ; right and wrong, 575- 
584; showing time, 586; 
present, 587 ; progressive, 
587; future, 589-603; with 
may and can, 604-606; 
of ''mood," 607-609; active 
and passive, 610; of sim- 
ple conjugations, 571-574; 
of complete conjugations, 

Freed or absolute noun, 392. 

freeze, 104, 105. 

from, 439. 

Future, the, 588 ; the pure, 589- 
592, 599, 602; the compliant, 
593-595 ; the determined, 596 ; 
the conditional, 600, 603. 



The Numbers refer to Sections 

Gender, in nouns, 528-534; in 
pronouns, 536, 538; in adjec- 
tives, 539. 

Genitive, nouns, 324; of singu- 
lar and plural nouns, 526 ; 
the group-, 527. 

give, 106. 

go, 107, 108; pure future of, 
580; determined future of, 

good, well, 413. 

got, with have, 58-61. 

Grammar, spelling of the word, 
4; defined, 5; applied, 6. 

Grammatical usage, examples 
of, 7-185. See also Practise 

Group-genitive, 527. 

grow, 109, 110. 


had rather, had better, 598, 

hain't, 54. 

have, contractions of, 45-53, 61 ; 
with got, 58-61 ; with not 
and been, 43-46 ; with verbal 
adjective, 397, 398; forms 
of, 564; simple conjugation 
of, 573. 

he, 166, 169, 171; referring to 
anyone, etc., 538. 

her, 172. 

him, 172. 

however, punctuation of, 498. 

Hyphen, rule for, 512. 


if, 467; as "peace maker," 
304, footnote ; punctuation, 

Imperative, mood, 608; sen- 
tences, 251, 258. 

Implied statements, 273-277. 

in, into, 441. 

indeed, punctuation of, 498. 

Indefinite, adjectives, 377; dis- 
tributive pronouns, with 
singular verb, 579; pro- 
nouns, 364. 

Independent, beginnings : noun 
or pronoun, 208; One, etc., 
211; Moreover, etc., 214; 
Still, etc., 215; So, 217 ; Also, 
etc., 219; Certainly, etc., 
221; There's, etc., 223; Here, 
etc., 226; Then, etc., 228; 
clauses, 197-230, especially 
206 and 207; conjunctions, 

Indicative, mood, 608. 

Indirect discourse, 366, 460; 
question, 366. 

Infinitives, 559-561. See also 
Verbal nouns. 

Inflections, defined, 506. See 
Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives, 
Adverbs, Verbs. 

Interest, variable point of chief, 

Interjections, 275, 470. 

Interrogative, adjectives, 375, 
378; pronouns, 365; sen- 
tences, 251. 

Intransitive verbs, 309. 

is, forms of, 563 ; older forms 
of, 617; simple conjugation 
of, 574; subject-pronouns 
after, 169-171, 352; tenses of , 

Isn't, 10, 26, 27, 28. 

it's, its, spelling of, 29, 375. 

its, in Shakspere and Florio, 
not in King James Bible, 615. 



The Numbers refer to Sections 

It's no, 29, 32. 
IV s not, 29, 30. 

judging, 395. 
Judgment, a, 246. 


know, 111, 112. 

Language, distinguishes men 
from animals, 1 ; spoken and 
written, 3; studied by all, 
daily, 4. 

lay, 119-124. 

Leaders, 490. 

lie, 113-118, 120, 123. 

like, 111, 178, 443. 

Literary usage, 10. 

looks, with adjectives and ad- 
verbs, 411. 

loose, 558. 

lose, 558. 

lot, with plural verb, 20, note; 
and lots, 18, note. 


Main statement, 234. 

Manner, adverbs of, 402. 

may, forms of, 567; uses of, 

me, 170, 173; after is, 169. 

Modifiers, defined, 305, 326, 
473; of the subject, 475; of 
the main verb, 476; of modi- 
fiers, 477. 

Moods, 607-609. 

Mood-adverbs, 221, 403. 

more, most, 541-550, passim. 

moreover, 453. 

must, 569, 607. 


Names, see Nouns, and Pro- 
nouns ; produced, 320. 

Neither, with singular verb, 21, 
22 ; — nor, 453, 455, 456. 

nevertheless, 453. 

nice, nicely, 414. 

no, contractions with, 29, 34; 
punctuation after, 498; with 
have, 49, 50, 54, 56, 57, 61. 

Nominative [term not em- 
ployed]. See Subject-forms, 
Constructions, and Absolute 

none, 20, note ; 578. 

not, contractions with, 29-31, 
35, 36; position of, 418, 420. 

Not-statements, 186-196. 

Nouns, defined, 312; class and 
individual, 312; examples of , 
313; subjects, 315; predicate, 
316; direct objects, 318; in- 
direct objects, 319; names 
produced, 320 ; appositives, 
322; genitives, 324; voca- 
tives, 325 ; as adjectives, 369 : 
forms of, 551-570 ; number in, 
513-526; gender in, 528-534; 
genitive forms, 526; verbal, 
see Verbal nouns. 

Noun-clauses, 460. 

Number, in form-combina- 
tions, 575-584 ; in nouns, 513- 
527 ; in pronouns, 536-538. 

Numeral, adjectives, 376; ad- 
verbs, 406 ; pronouns, 363. 


Object, defined, 120; direct, 
318 ; indirect, 319 ; -forms of 
pronouns, 172, 352, 353; of 
prepositions, 426; clauses, 



The Numbers refer to Sections 

Object-complement [term not 
employed]. See Name Pro- 
duced, and Adjective Pro- 

of, 444; instead of genitive, 
533 ; — which, 530. 

of, 445. 

Older forms, 614-620. 

only, position of, 418, 41!). 

or, how punctuated, 233, 454; 
— nor, correct use of, 455. 

Ordinals, 363. 

ought, 333, (507. 

Owen, Edward T., 535, note. 

owing, 395. 
.own, 375. 


Parentheses, 280; marks of, 
280, 488 ; punctuation of, 498. 

Participle, forms of, 559-562; 
not a statement, 180, 188, 388 ; 
uses of, 388-400. 

Parts of speech, defined, 301 ; 
enumerated, 302; one word 
as various, 301. 

perhaps, punctuation of, 498. 

Period, 491, 494; when needed, 
193-228 ; when to be avoided, 
193, 194, 195, 196, 235. 

Person, 357 ; in form-combina- 
tions, 575-584; in personal 
pronouns, 536; in possessive 
pronouns, 537. 

Personal pronouns. See Pro- 

Personification, and gender, 

Phrases, 186-196; defined, 186; 
not to be punctuated like 
sentences, 193 ; participle, 
388; adjective, 422; adver- 
bial, 422; verb-, 399, 585- 

Place, adverbs of 402, 409; 
conjunctions of, 464. 

Plural. See Number. 

Positive degree, 541. 

Possessive, forms, see Genitive ; 
adjectives, 375; pronouns, 
362, 537. 

" Potential mood," 607. 

Practise Exercises: oral, 16, 18, 
19, 20,22,23,27,28,30,33,32, 
34, 36, 38, 42, 44, 46, 48, 50, 52, 
53, 55, 56,57,61,62,71,73,7^, 
77, 79, 81. S3, St;, 88,89, 90, 93, 
96, 97, 99, 100, 103, 105, 108, 
110, 112, 114, 115, 118, 122, 123, 
124, 126, 131, 132, 134, 136, 139, 
140, 144, 140, 150, 154, 157, 160, 
167,168, 171,173, 174, 176, 178, 
188, 189, 190, 194, 201, 202, 203, 
232, 245, 252, 259, 260, 266, 277, 
289, 351, 356, 359, 371, 372, 380, 
381, 382, 391, 405. 413, 414, 415, 
416, 417, 419, 420, 421, 427, 428, 
429, 433, 440, 442, 449, 451, 458, 
501, 502, 503, 504, 505, 534, 540, 
548, 550, 557, 558, 583, 584, 590, 
591, 592, 594, 596, 599, 602, 603, 
605. Written : 40, 41, 63, 192, 
195, 196, 204, 209, 210, 212, 216, 
217, 218, 219, 220, 222, 225, 227, 
229, 230, 237, 239, 240, 241, 242, 
243, 269, 271, 283, 292, 297, 299, 

Predicate, 184, 185; subject 
and, 246-283; compound, 284 
-298 ; necessary to statement, 
187; -objective [term not 
employed], see Name pro- 
duced, and Adjective pro- 
duced; adjective, 383, 385; 
noun, 316; participles, 388, 
398, 399. 
Prepositions, chief, 429; de- 



The Numbers refer to Sections 

fined, 422; object of, 426; 
position of, 424. 

pretty, prettily, 416. 

Principal parts of verb, 64-67. 

Produced, Dames, 320; adjec- 
tives, 385. 

Progressive forms, 587. 

Pronouns, defined, 344 ; enume- 
rated, 345 ; antecedents of, 
346; referring to statement, 
348; without antecedent, 
349; should be near ante- 
cedent, 350 ; subject-forms, 
352, 165-179 ; predicate- 
forms, 352, 169, 170 s object- 
forms, 172, 175, 353, 426; 
personal, 357, 536; demon- 
strative, 361 ; possessive, 362, 
537; self-, 358; numeral, 
363; indefinite, 364, 538; in- 
terrogative, 365 ; relative, 
367. 538 ; " agreement ' ' with , 
of verb, 575-584; in form- 
combinations, 571-613; older 
forms of, 614, 615. 

Pronunciation, vulgar, 9. 

P unc t ua t io u , 481-505 ; child ' s 
fault in (misuse of comma 
for period), 197-230; before 
independent conjunctions, 
454 ; special rules for comma 
and period, 494-500; comma, 
general rule for, 500; be- 
fore and and but, 495; of 
series, 497; of parentheses, 
498 ; of relative clauses, 499 ; 
the brackets, 489; the colon, 
487; the comma, 492; the 
dash, 486; the exclamation 
point, 484; the leaders, 490; 
the period, 491 ; the question 
mark, 485; the semicolon, 
483 ; the stars, 490. 

Pure future. See Future. 
Purpose clauses, 469. 


Question-mark, 270, 485. 
Questions, direct and indirect, 

366; shall and will in, 598- 


raise, 129. 

Reflexive, pronouns, 358. 
Relations, between persons 

or things (or their names), 

318, 326, 472. 
Relative, pronouns, 367, 538; 

adjectives, 375, 378; clauses, 

367 ; punctuation of 

clauses, 499. 
Result clauses, 469. 
ride, 125, 126. 
ring, 127. 
rise, 128, 129. 
Root-infinitive, 334. 
Rules, for period and comma, 

494-500 ; for the hyphen, 512. 
run, 130-132. 

said, 557. 

Scholastic usage. See Usage. 

See, 133, 134; complete conju- 
gation of, 612; phrasal ver- 
bals of, 613. 

Seem. See Link-verbs. 

Self -pronouns, 358. 

Semicolon, 290, 292, 295, 483. 

Sentence, definition of, 181- 
300 ; simplest definition of, 
181 ; composed of subject 
and predicate, 246-283; in- 
dependent elements of, 272- 
283; elements of, 471-480; 
simple, 234; compound, 284- 



The Numbers refer to Sections 

298; complex, 234; declara- 
tive, 251 ; exclamatory, 251 ; 
imperative, 251, 258; inter- 
rogative, 251. 

Sentence-words, 273-279. 

Series, punctuation of, 287, 

set, 12, 140-142. 

setting hen, 142. 

shake, 143, 144. 

shall, forms of, 565; and will, 
589-603, 620. 

she, 166, 169, 171. 

show, 145, 146. 

Simple sentences, 234. 

since , 465 ; punctuation before, 

sing, 147, 150. 

sink, 148, 150. 

sit, 12, 135-137, 140. 

Slang, 9. 

so, 217, 453, 454. 

Solemn style, 614-1520. 

so that, 469. 

sound, with adjectives and ad- 
verbs, 412. 

Spelling. See Plural, Genitive, 
Possessive adjectives, Rela- 
tive adjectives, Self-pro- 

spring, 149, 150. 

Stars, the, 490. 

Statements, 2, 181, 182, 183; 
denned, 186; and Not-state- 
ments, 186-196, 388; inde- 
pendent, 197-230; dependent, 
231-245 ; implied, 273-277 ; 
condensed, 495, note ; con- 
trary to fact, 606, 609. 

steal, 151 

still, 453. 

Subject, denned, 14, 184, 185; 
-forms of pronouns, 352; 

necessary to statement, 187 ; 
compound, 284-298; formal 
and logical, 261-265; no 
punctuation after, 267 ; of 
imperative sentence, 258 ; 
position of, 254-257 ; simple 
and complete, 327, 386, 474, 

Subjunctive, mood, 609, 617, 

Subordinate or dependent 
clauses, 231-245, 367; gen- 
eral rule for punctuating, 

Superlative, 541, 547. 

Sweet, Henry, ix, 307, foot- 
note ; 535, footnote. 

swim, 152. 

swing, 153, 154. 

Syntax [term not used]. See 
Form-combinations, right 
and wrong. 

take, 155-157. 

teach, 158. 

Tenses, 586-606, 609, 612, 617- 

620; denned, 586, footnote. 
that, conjunction, 460. 
the and a, 379-382. 
thee, 614. 

them, 172; for those, 9. 
There are, plural subject after, 

therefore, 453, 454. 
There's no, 33, 34. 
they, 166, 169, 171. 
thou, 614, 617, 618. 
throw, 159, 160. 
Time, distinctions of, 586-606; 

past, 64-164, 551 ; present, 

64-164, 587; future, 588-603; 

adverbs of, 402, 430; prepo- 



The Numbers refer to Sections 

sitions of, 430, 465; con- 
junctions of, 465. 

'tisn't, 29, 31. 


Usage, conversational, 11; 
grammatical, examples of, 7- 
185; literary, 10; scholastic, 
10 ; vulgar, 8. 

Verbs, denned, 13, 303; not 
statements, 186; make 
reader responsible, 304; ex- 
plain subject indirectly, 305; 
action and link-, 307 ; transi- 
tive, 308; intransitive, 309; 
essentially transitive, 310; 
forms of, 551-570, 64-164; 
vowel, 552, 64-164; conso- 
nant, 553-58; form-combina- 
tions of, 571-613; "agree- 
ment" with subject, 15, 17, 
18-24, 575-584; older forms 
of, 616-618. See be, have, 
shall, will, may, can, must, 
call, see, love. Also see 
Tenses, Moods. 

Verbal adjectives, 388-400; 
559-562; active and passive, 
399 ; intransitive, 400 ; assum- 
ing and predicate, 396; in 
ing, 388; the past, 396; 
with have, 397 ; phrasal, 613 ; 
predicate, 398; should be 
near their nouns, 394; must 
have a noun or pronoun to 
modify, 395 ; why called par- 
ticiples, 396. 

Verbal nouns, 329-343 ; in ing, 
329; with to, 330-333; show- 

ing the object's action, 340; 
attached to nouns, 342 ; forms 
of, 559-561; not called par- 
ticiples, 396 ; phrasal, 613. 

Verbals, forms of, 559-562; 
phrasal, 613. See Verbal 
noun, Verbal adjective. 

Verb-phrases, 399, 585-610. 

Vocatives, 276, 279, 325 ; punc- 
tuation of, 498 

Voice, 610, 617, 618. 

Vulgarisms, 8. 


want, with prepositions, 450. 

wasn't, 9. 

Well, punctuation after, 498. 

well, good, 413. 

were as tense-mood, 37-42, 609. 

when, 465. 

w here, 464. 

whose, 375, 539. 

whoever, 352. 

Why, punctuation after, 498. 

will, forms of, 566 ; shall and, 

589-603, 620. 
with, influence on number of 

verb, 582. 
Words, defined, 2; forms of, 7, 

506-620; combinations of, 7, 

571-613; compound, 512. 
wring, 161. 
write, 162, 163. 

ye, 615, 617, 618. 
Yes, punctuation after, 498. 
yet, 453. 

you, always takes plural verb, 


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tical in treatment ; simple -and- to the point." 


Central High School, Philadelphia : 

" I have read it carefully and am much pleased with the way the 
work has been done. It is careful, thoughtful, and clearly arranged. 
The quotations are apt and judiciously selected. It is the best book 
of its sizeand scope that I am acquainted with." — ALBERT H. SMYTH. 

Victoria University, Toronto, Can. : 

" I know of nothing else that is quite so good, either in plan or ex- 
ecution, and I should like to see the book placed in the High Schools 
and Collegiate Institutes throughout Ontario." — Pro£ A. E. Lang. 

South Chicago High School, Chicago, 111. : 

"The book is of the utmost assistance to me in my teaching of 
English, It gives clearly and succinctly just what I wish to use in 
instructing my students as to punctuation, organizing of themes, and 
sentence structure. The text as a whole presents a plan for teach- 
ing English more in accordance with modern principles than any 
other elementary work I know." — GRACE DARLING. 


Amesbury, Mass., High School. Saratoga Spa, N.Y., High School. 

Andover, Mass., Phillip's Academy. Newburgh, N.Y., Misses Mackie's 
Groton, Mass^ Groton School. . School. 

Holyoke, Mass., High School. New York, La Salle Inst. 

Hopedale, Mass., High School. East Greenwich, R.I., Academy. 

New Bedford, Mass.. High School. Newport, R.I., High School. 

Cambridge, Mass., English H. S. Pawtucket, R.I., High School. 

Cambridge, Mass., Latin School. Woodbury, Ct., High School. 

Cambridge, Mass., Manual Train- York Harbor, Me., High School. 

irig High School. Plainfteld, Vt., High School. 

No. Attleborough, Mass., High Kingston, Pa., Wyoming Seminary. 

School. Wilkesbarre, Pa., Wilkesbarre Inst. 

Stow, Mass., High School. Peru, Neb., Normal School. 

Wellesley, Mass., High School. Petersburg, Va., Academy. 

Brookline, Mass., High School." Newark, N.J., Newark Academy. 

Syracuse, N.Y., High School. Indianapolis, Irid., Normal School. 

Buffalo, N.Y. Buffalo Seminary. Ada, O., Normal School. 

Poughkeepsie, N.Y., Riverview Tulare, Cal., High School. 

Academy. Lompos, Cal., High School. 

Fort Plain, N.Y'., Clinton Liberal Modesto, Cal., High School. 

Inst. St. Helena, Cal., High School. 


66 Fifth Avenue \ New York 
Boston Chicago San Francisco Atlanta 


A First Manual in Composition 

l2mo. Buckram. Price 60 cents 


A Practical Course in Theme-Writing. 
Suited to the Eighth and Ninth School Years. 
One-Year Course with Daily Recitations. 
Two-Year Course with Semi-Weekly Recitations. 
Work of Each Day Clearly Specified. 
Themes Restricted to the Single Paragraph. 
Unique in its Simplicity. 

State Normal School, Framingham, Mass. : 

"... It is thoroughly practical and emphasizes those things that 
my experience shows demand emphasis. // is interesting from cover 
to cover, made so in a measure by the character and variety of the 
many illustrations of the principles taught. I shall recommend the 
book very heartily to my classes." — Mary C. MOORE. 

Washington Irving High School, Tarrytown, N.Y. : 

" It is the most satisfactory work of its kind on the market to- 
day."— A. W. Emerson. 


Menominee, Mich., High School. Terre Haute, Ind., State Normal 
Cedar Rapids, la , High School. School. 

Burlington, la., Burlingion Inst. Logansport, Ind., City Schools. 

Chicago, 111., Lewis Inst. Faribault, Minn., Shattuck School. 

Chicago, 111., Princeton-Yale Sch. Lawrence, Mass., Grammar Schools. 

Holby, Wis., High School. Newton, Mass., Grammar Schools. 

West Superior, Wis., State Normal Maiden, Mass., Grammar Schools. 

School. Pittsburgh, Pa., Shady Side Acad. 

Beloit, Wis, High School. Bridgton, Me., Public Schools. 

Oshkosh, Wis., State Normal Sch. Highland, Wis., Public Schools. 

New York, N.Y., Miss Brown's Sch. Philadelphia, Pa., Friends' Sch. 


66 Fifth Avenue, New York 

Boston Chicago San Francisco Atlanta 

A Second Manual of Composition 

l2mo. Buckram. Price 90 cents 

CONTENTS : Introduction. Part I. — Composition in Gen- 
eral. I. Planning the Composition. II. The Paragraph as 
a Part and as a Whole. III. The Sentence as a Part and as 
a Whole. IV. Words. Part II. — The Kinds of Compo- 
sition. I. Narration. II. Description. III. Exposition. 
IV. Argumentation. 

The Second Book is intended for use in High School work and is adapted 
to a one or two year course. It consists of two parts, one of which deals 
with composition in general, the other with the kinds of composition. The 
study of the structure of the long composition is placed before the study of 
any part of the theme, and also before the study of narration, description, 
and exposition. 

The book contains three appendices on the more troublesome questions, 
(A) of grammar, (B) of punctuation, (C) of spelling. Appendix (B) is 
supplemented by the work of Chapters II. and III., which explain the colon 
and the semicolon in connection with the subjects of unity and emphasis in 
sentence and paragraph. Appendix (C) is supplemented by a list of sixteen 
hundred words often misspelled. 


Classical High School, Providence, R.I.: 

"It is good — in the right line of emphasis on practice rather than on 
theory." — Emily I. Meader. 

" It is a helpful and thoroughly practical treatise, informed by the best 
scholarship, and deserving of the most cordial commendation." — The Dial. 

The Taft School, Watertown, Ct: 

" I do not hesitate to pronounce Lewis' ' Second Manual of Composition,' 
for secondary schools, the final book on the subject. We will make Dr. 
Lewis responsible for all of the composition work of this school." 

— Arthur N. Dilley. 

Fifth Avenue Normal High School, Pittsburg, Pa.: 

" It is certainly original and practical to a remarkable degree. It seems 
to me that he has given almost a final treatment to the Kinds of Composi- 
tion. Future books will hardly do it better." 

— Thomas C. Blaisdell, Head of English Dept. 


66 Fifth Avenue, New York 
Boston Chicago San Francisco Atlanta 




For the Use of Secondary and Graded Schools 

l2mo. Cloth. $1.00 

This book is intended for use in secondary and graded schools. 
It is a collection of short masterpieces of modern literature arranged 
in groups, each group interpreting some phase of youthful interest. 
Each section is opened with an introduction, which aims to suggest 
a very elementary but sound method and vocabulary of criticism. 

University of North Dakota : 

" It is just the book that was needed. It connects literature with 
life in a way that is interesting, convincing, and inspiring." — VERNON 
P. SQUIRES, Professor of English Language and Literature. 

Dayton, Ohio : 

" Permit me to congratulate both author and publisher upon the 
excellent judgment manifested in the choice of selections. The book, 
it seems to me, is calculated to become not only a safe guide in liter- 
ary taste, but a valuable aid to the teacher in his efforts at character 
building." — W. N. HAILMAN, Supt. of Schools. 


Colchester, Conn., Bacon Acad. Auburn, N.Y., High School. 

Pawtucket, R.I., High School. Roxbury, Mass., Roxbury Latin Sch. 

Clinton, Miss., Private School. Beloit, Wis., High School. 

Pocantico Hills, N.Y.,»Private Sch. Chicago, 111., Princeton-Yale Sch. 

New York City, Boys' High School. Faribault, Minn., Shattuck School. 

New York City, Boys' High School Morgan Park, 111., Morgan Park 
Annex. Academy. 

Burlington, la., Burlington Inst. Brooklyn, N.Y., Adelphi College. 

Terre Haute, Ind., State Normal Logansport, Ind, City Schools. 

School. Oshkosh, Wis., State Normal Sch. 

San Diego, Cal., State Normal Sch. Columbia, Mo , University School. 

Brookline, Mass., Chestnut Hill Cornwall-on-Hudson, N.Y., Corn- 
School. - wall Heights School. 


66 Fifth Avenue, New York 
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18 I 




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